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To assess medium-term efficacy of rollerball endometrial ablation in a district general hospital.
We examined the steady-state distribution and axonal transport of neurofilament (NF) subunits within growing axonal neurites of NB2a/d1 cells. Ultrastructural analyses demonstrated a longitudinally oriented "bundle" of closely apposed NFs that was surrounded by more widely spaced individual NFs. NF bundles were recovered during fractionation and could be isolated from individual NFs by sedimentation through sucrose. Immunoreactivity toward the restrictive C-terminal phospho-dependent antibody RT97 was significantly more prominent on bundled than on individual NFs. Microinjected biotinylated NF subunits, GFP-tagged NF subunits expressed after transfection, and radiolabeled endogenous subunits all associated with individual NFs before they associated with bundled NFs. Biotinylated and GFP-tagged NF subunits did not accumulate uniformly along bundled NFs; they initially appeared within the proximal portion of the NF bundle and only subsequently were observed along the entire length of bundled NFs. These findings demonstrate that axonal NFs are not homogeneous but, rather, consist of distinct populations. One of these is characterized by less extensive C-terminal phosphorylation and a relative lack of NF-NF interactions. The other is characterized by more extensive C-terminal NF phosphorylation and increased NF-NF interactions and either undergoes markedly slower axonal transport or does not transport and undergoes turnover via subunit and/or filament exchange with individual NFs. Inhibition of phosphatase activities increased NF-NF interactions within living cells. These findings collectively suggest that C-terminal phosphorylation and NF-NF interactions are responsible for slowing NF axonal transport.
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Actinomycosis should be discussed as a possible diagnosis for all cerebral lesions, particularly in patients with a potential dental infection. Histology is required for positive diagnosis. Antibiotic therapy alone is generally sufficient; surgery is often performed for diagnostic purposes.
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A total of 719 pediatric patients from the ages of 3 months to 12 years were enrolled in the 2 studies. Patients received CAE for either 5 or 10 days at 30 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses (n = 242 and 235, respectively) or AMX/CL for 10 days at 40 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses (n = 242). Patients in the CAE (5 days) group received placebo on Days 6 through 10. In the study that included tympanocentesis, bacteriologic assessments were based on middle ear fluid cultures obtained pretreatment and, when possible, after treatment in patients with an unsatisfactory clinical outcome.
Between 4 and 8% of periodontitis patients are reported to respond poorly to conventional therapy. In these cases, adjunctive use of systemic antibiotics might be a reasonable therapeutic approach. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemic amoxicillin/clavulanate as adjunct to periodontal surgery on the predominant subgingival microorganisms in patients not responding to mechanical therapy. Furthermore, the bacterial susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanate was analyzed before and after therapy in order to assess the clinical validity of pre-therapeutic susceptibility testing.
Children attending day care centers (DCCs) frequently carry antibacterial-resistant organisms in their nasopharynx, leading to acute otitis media (AOM) that may be refractory to antibacterial treatment. The development and spread of resistant organisms are facilitated in DCCs as a result of the following: (i) large numbers of children; (ii) frequent close person-to-person contact; and (iii) a wide use of antimicrobial medications. Intensive antimicrobial usage provides the selection pressure that favors the emergence of resistant organisms, while DCCs provide an ideal environment for transmission of these organisms. The American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians' guidelines recommend high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (rather than amoxicillin alone) as the first therapeutic choice in the treatment of AOM in children attending DCCs. The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) had a major role in decreasing the number of episodes of Streptococccus pneumoniae AOM secondary to the serotypes included in the vaccine. It also had a major role in reducing the nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-type S. pneumoniae (and in particular of antibacterial-resistant organisms), preventing, in this way, its spread to contacts in the community. However, the recent observation of increased rates of antibacterial-resistant non-vaccine serotype S. pneumoniae may erode the success of PCV7.
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Subjects with suspected DILI were enrolled prospectively, and cases were adjudicated as previously described. Clinical variables and outcomes of patients with AC-DILI were compared to the overall DILIN cohort and to DILI caused by other antimicrobials.
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Last decade was marked for growing difficulties in the treatment of IE related to its polyetiology. It can be caused by such therapy-resistant microbes as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, anaerobic infection, nosocomial infection, injections of narcotic drugs, etc.