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Multicenter, prospective, randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial.
The aim of this study was to confirm a presumptive qualification of clinical B. fragilis group strains isolated in Płock as ESBL-positive strains and to determine some properties of these strains. Twenty four clinical strains belonging to the B. fragilis group, isolated first of all from surgical patients, were received for testing. Identification of strains was performed in the automatic ATB Expression system (bioMerieux sa, France) using biochemical API 20 A strips. Strains were tested for the production of catalase (ID Color Catalase test, bioMerieux sa) and beta-lactamase (Cefinase, BBL, Becton Dickinson, USA). Susceptibility of strains to four antimicrobial agents: clindamycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and imipenem was determined by Etest (AB Biodisk, Sweden). ESBLs were detected with the use of two disc diffusion methods: the double-disc synergy test (DDST) according to Jarlier et al. and the diagnostic disc (DD) test according to Appleton. Seventeen of examined strains belonged to the species Bacteroides fragilis, three--to B. ovatus/thetaiotaomicron, two--to B. distasonis, one--to B. uniformis and one--to B. stercoris/eggerthii. One strain (B. uniformis) did not produce catalase, whereas all strains produced beta-lactamases. Examined strains were susceptible in vitro to metronidazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and imipenem. One clindamycin-resistant strain was detected (B. fragilis). Occurrence of ESBL-type enzymes was confirmed in 22 strains of following species: B. fragilis (17 strains), B. ovatus/thetaiotaomicron (3), B. distasonis (1) and B. uniformis (1). Clinical strains of the B. fragilis group with a new mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics appeared during last years in Poland. They produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), so they are resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins and monobactams. Monitoring of infections caused by these threatening strains in hospital patients is very important.
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Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia or pseudolymphoma is a usually benign inflammatory response that mimics lymphoma. Stimulation from foreign antigens introduced into the skin can induce this response. Scratches from pets are an effective mode of transmitting infections and inoculating foreign antigens into the skin. We report an unusual case of a child where cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia presented as subcutaneous nodules at sites scratched by a pet cat.
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This prospective study examined 149 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary otorhinolaryngology centre with spontaneous epistaxis, who underwent nasal packing, over a six-month period. In the first three-month period, 78 patients were routinely prescribed prophylactic antibiotics; in the second three months, 71 patients were not routinely prescribed antibiotics. Exclusion criteria included antibiotics prescribed for unrelated pathology and post-operative epistaxis. Signs and symptoms of acute otitis media, sinusitis and toxic shock syndrome were assessed using clinical examination and a questionnaire.
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To study the emergence of amoxicilline/clavulanate resistance in Salmonella and Shigella.
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Augmentin (SmithKline Beecham) was used in the treatment of 24 patients after operations on the otorhinolaryngologic organs. The drug was administered orally, intravenously or applied locally. After a radical operation on the maxillary sinus the use of augmentin resulted in a marked decrease of the wound secretion and soft tissue edema on the 6th-7th days. After tonsillectomy cleaning of the tonsil niche from the fibrin patches and the epithelialization started on the 4th-5th days. After operations on the temporal bone cleaning of the postoperative cavity and beginning of the epithelialization were observed on the 9th-10th days. On the whole, the use of augmentin accelerated the cure which was recorded 3-4 days earlier.
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A multicenter study of the new pediatric formulation of Augmentin (containing 100 mg amoxicillin and 12.5 mg clavulanic acid per ml) in acute otitis media (AOM) in patients aged three months to three years was carried out by hospital-based pediatricians. Study patients seen at the hospital outpatient clinics were given the drug in a daily dosage of 80 mg in three (83% of cases) or four (15%) divided doses for 6 to 10 days; 28% of patients were also given an antiinflammatory agent. A total of 83 patients with a mean age of 13.5 months were included (89% of patients were less than two years of age); one-third of these patients were included after failure of another antimicrobial agent (macrolide 46%, cephalosporin 23%). The AOM was bilateral in most patients (69.5%) and 46% of patients had a history of previous AOM. Temperature was elevated in 85% of cases and more than half the patients had gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea) prior to initiation of the study drug. At the interim evaluation on the fourth treatment day, tympanic membranes were normal in 43.5% of cases and improved in 22% of cases. Over 92% of patients achieved resolution of their AOM by the end of the treatment period, regardless of whether or not myringostomy had been performed on Do. Among the 27 patients given the study drug as rescue therapy after failure of another antimicrobial, 24 (89%) recovered fully.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Two models of respiratory tract infection were used to investigate the pharmacodynamics of amoxicillin-clavulanate against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Eight strains of S. pneumoniae were used in a mouse model in which the animals were infected intranasally and were then treated with a range of doses and dose intervals. The time that the plasma amoxicillin concentration remained above the MIC (T>MIC) correlated well with bacterial killing, such that if T>MIC was below 20% there was no effect on bacterial numbers in the lungs. As T>MIC increased, the response, in terms of decreased bacterial load, improved and at T>MICs of greater than 35 to 40% of the dosing interval, bacteriological cure was maximal. On the basis of equivalent T>MICs, these data would suggest that in humans a dosage of 500 mg three times daily (t.i.d.) should have efficacy equal to that of a dosage of 875 mg twice daily (b.i.d.). This hypothesis was evaluated in a rat model in which amoxicillin-clavulanate was given by computer-controlled intravenous infusion to achieve concentrations that approximate the concentrations achieved in the plasma of humans following oral administration of 500/125 mg t.i.d. or 875/125 mg b.i.d. Infusions continued for 3 days and bacterial numbers in the lungs 2 h after the cessation of the infusion were significantly reduced (P < 0.01) by both treatments in strains of S. pneumoniae for which amoxicillin MICs were below 2 microg/ml. When tested against a strain of S. pneumoniae for which the amoxicillin MIC was 4 microg/ml, the simulated 500/125-mg dose was ineffective but the 875/125-mg dose demonstrated a small but significant (P < 0. 01) reduction in bacterial numbers. These data confirm the findings in the mouse and indicate that amoxicillin-clavulanate administered at 875/125 mg b.i.d. would be as effective clinically as amoxicillin-clavulanate administered at 500/125 mg t.i.d.