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There are few reports on concentrations of antibiotics in human lung tissues. The concentrations of clindamycin (CLDM) in human lung tissues were determined in 11 patients with lung tumor who were treated with the antibiotic. In the case of 600 mg drip infusion for 1 hour, the concentrations of CLDM in lung tissues were 24 micrograms/g and 23 micrograms/g, 2 and 3 hours after the start of drip infusion, respectively. In the case of 1,200 mg drip infusion, the value reached 47 micrograms/g in 2 hours and 39 micrograms/g in 3 hours. The concentrations in lung tissues were about 4-5 times higher than in blood.
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A 3-day regimen of clindamycin, given as intravaginal ovules, was as effective as and better tolerated than a 7-day regimen of oral metronidazole 500 mg, given twice daily, for treatment of bacterial vaginosis.
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Quantification of acne remains a challenge. It may be difficult to identify lesions by standard flash photography. Previous studies have shown that foci of light in fluorescence photographs correspond to high protoporphyrin IX production by Propionibacterium acnes in open comedones, follicles, and inflammatory lesions.
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An antibiotic, to be effective for prophylaxis in abdominal trauma, should quickly achieve high concentrations in the intestinal wall and at enough inhibitory levels to kill most aerobic and anaerobic bacteria that are potential contaminants at the site of surgical incision. Therefore, we studied the intestinal tissue levels of clindamycin, gentamicin, and mezlocillin to see whether the tissue levels achieved by these antibiotics in the intestinal tissue were adequate. A single dose of mezlocillin, 4 grams; clindamycin, 600 mg and gentamicin, 80 mg; quickly reached the desired concentrations, i.e., 52.3, 9.69 and 6.1 micrograms/gram of intestinal tissue respectively. These levels were high enough to inhibit the growth of most isolates of E. coli and B. fragilis, common pathogens involved in intra-abdominal abscess.
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Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacteria associated with the development of osteomyelitis in pediatric patients. Osteomyelitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be difficult to safely and effectively treat. Vancomycin, linezolid, and clindamycin are commonly used to treat osteomyelitis caused by MRSA. While adult studies suggest intravenous (IV) daptomycin may by beneficial for the treatment of MRSA osteomyelitis, it is not Food and Drug Administration approved for use in pediatrics, and minimal data are available related to its use in this population. This case report describes the successful use of daptomycin (8 mg/kg/dose IV daily) combined with rifampin for 5 weeks, followed by 5 weeks of oral sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, for treatment of acute bilateral osteomyelitis caused by MRSA in an 8-year-old male. The patient did not initially respond to the combination of vancomycin plus rifampin and gentamicin, nor did he respond to ceftaroline treatment. After initiation of daptomycin, his fevers quickly subsided, his pain rapidly improved, and his inflammatory markers significantly decreased. While daptomycin was effective in this patient, additional research is needed to determine the true safety and efficacy of this drug for treatment of osteomyelitis caused by MRSA in pediatric patients.
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Nine group B streptococci (GBS) strains were isolated from five toxic shock-like syndrome cases of nonpregnant adults in Japan from 2001 to 2005. All of them were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae. The serotypes of these strains were Ib, III, V, and VII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the patterns of the strains isolated from the different patients were variable. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that all of the strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, cefotaxime, clindamycin, and telithromycin. One strain showed intermediate resistance to erythromycin.
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There is insufficient evidence to show whether giving antibiotics to women with ureaplasma in the vagina will prevent preterm birth.
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We previously reported on the emergence of macrolide-resistant pharyngeal isolates of group A streptococci (GAS) in our community. The purpose of the present study was to track longitudinal trends in macrolide resistance in these isolates in southwestern Pennsylvania. Testing for susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin was performed for all pharyngeal GAS isolates recovered at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh and a local pediatric practice between September 2001 and May 2002. Macrolide resistance phenotypes and genotypes were determined by double-disk diffusion and PCR, respectively. Strain relatedness was determined by field inversion gel electrophoresis and emm gene sequence typing. A total of 708 isolates of GAS were recovered during the study period; 68 (9.6%) were macrolide resistant, while all isolates were sensitive to clindamycin. The monthly prevalence of macrolide resistance ranged from 0 to 41%. Only 21 of 573 (3.7%) strains recovered from September 2001 through March 2002 were macrolide resistant. A sudden increase in the rate of macrolide resistance (47 of 135 isolates [35%]) was seen in April and May 2002. Sixty-two isolates demonstrated the M phenotype (resistance to macrolide antibiotics), and six isolates demonstrated the MLS(B) phenotype (resistance to most macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotics); these isolates were confirmed to be mef(A) and erm(A), respectively. Three unique mef(A) clones and four unique erm(A) clones were identified among the resistant isolates. The MIC at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC(50)) for the mef(A) strains was 16 micro g/ml, while the MIC(50) for erm(A) strains was 8 micro g/ml. The finding of high levels of macrolide resistance among pharyngeal isolates of GAS for a second successive year in our community raises the concern that this problem may be more common in the United States than was previously appreciated. Longitudinal surveillance of isolates from multiple centers is needed to define the prevalence of antimicrobial agent-resistant GAS in the United States.