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We describe a real-time PCR assay for the discrimination of azithromycin-resistant and -susceptible strains of Treponema pallidum. This assay is rapid and allows for as many as 30 clinical specimens to be analyzed simultaneously without the need for DNA sequencing.
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A prospective observational study of children under eighteen years old, confirmed having the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1) infection by real-time reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR), admitted at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Bangkok, Thailand during one year, from 1st June 2009 to 31st May 2010.
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The Azithromycin Albumin Microspheres (AAM) was prepared by emulsion polymerization technique. The optimized AAM was subjected to in vitro release study, release kinetics, XRD and stability studies. Further, in vivo pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of azithromycin released from AAM and azithromycin solution in albino mice was investigated to prove suitability of moving forward the next steps in the clinic.
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The high prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant gonorrhea observed in Kampala-based FSW emphasizes the need for sustainable gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs in Uganda and, in general, Africa.
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This study supports the continued use of third-generation cephalosporins, spectinomycin, and fluoroquinolone drugs for the primary treatment of gonococcal infections in Manaus. The occurrence of isolates with reduced susceptibility to azithromycin and ciprofloxacin underscores the importance of ongoing antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring to support decisions regarding appropriate drugs for the treatment of gonococcal infections.
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133 SSTIs occurred in 87 individuals. 85 subjects were followed after their initial SSTI, of whom 30 (35.3 %) had a recurrent SSTI in 118.3 person-years of follow-up, for an incidence of second SSTI of 253.6 SSTIs/1000 person-years (95 % CI 166.8-385.7). The 1-year Kaplan-Meier estimated risk of a second SSTI was 29.2 % (95 % CI 20.3-41.0 %), while the 3-year risk was 47.0 % (95 % CI 34.4-61.6 %). Risk factors for recurrent SSTI in a multivariable Cox regression model were non-hepatitis liver disease (HR 3.44; 95 % CI 1.02-11.5; p = 0.05), the presence of an intravenous catheter (HR 6.50; 95 % CI 1.47-28.7; p = 0.01), and a history of intravenous drug use (IVDU) (HR 2.80; 95 % CI 1.02-7.65; p = 0.05); African-American race was associated with decreased risk of recurrent SSTI (HR 0.12; 95 % CI 0.04-0.41; p < 0.01). Some evidence was present for HIV viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL as an independent risk factor for recurrent SSTI (HR 2.21; 95 % CI 0.99-4.94; p = 0.05). Hemodialysis, currently taking HAART, CD4+ count, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or azithromycin use, initial SSTI type, diabetes mellitus, incision and drainage of the original SSTI, or self-report of being a man who has sex with men were not associated with recurrence.
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The results of both studies indicated that neither the peak concentrations of nor the exposures (area under the concentration-time curve) to the test drugs were changed when azithromycin was coadministered. In addition, fluconazole did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic parameters of azithromycin.
The etiologic agent of yaws, Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue, causes a multistage infection transmitted by nonsexual contact with the exudates from active lesions. Bone lesions in the form of osteoperiostitis are common and occur in numerous bones simultaneously in early stages. Although a multinational eradication campaign with mass administration of intramuscular benzylpenicillin in the 1950s greatly reduced its global incidence, a resurgence of yaws has occurred since around 2000 in western and central Africa and the Pacific Islands. The finding that a single oral dose of azithromycin (30 mg/kg) was as effective as benzylpenicillin prompted renewed interest by World Health Organization in 2012 toward eradication of this infection by 2020. We previously reported the excellent response to benzylpenicillin therapy for yaws osteoperiostitis. Herein, we document a confirmed case of yaws with osteoperiostitis successfully treated with single-dose azithromycin and discuss the pathology of yaws periostitis and comment on the implications of this in light of the new campaign toward yaws eradication.