The prevalence of penicillin- ciprofloxacin- and tetracycline-resistant Ng has reached dramatic levels, whereas cefixime and ceftriaxone show MICs that tend to increase during time. International MDR clones less susceptible to cephalosporins are rapidly emerging indicating that the era of untreatable gonococcal infections is close.
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The in-vitro activity of cefdinir (FK482), an orally absorbed aminothiazolyl cephalosporin, was compared with that of cefuroxime, cefixime, cephalexin, cefaclor and co-amoxiclav. Cefdinir was highly active against Staphylococcus aureus, inhibiting 90% of strains at 0.03 mg/L. The respiratory pathogens Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis were also susceptible (MIC90 less than or equal to 1 mg/L). The common members of the Enterobacteriaceae were susceptible (MIC90 less than or equal to 1 mg/L), but those possessing chromosomal beta-lactamases were more resistant. Cefdinir appeared highly stable to the TEM-1 and SHV-1 beta-lactamases with only relatively minor degrees of hydrolysis being seen with TEM-3, -5 and -9.
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Strains (n = 8) of each of E. coli O26, E. coli O111 and E. coli O157 were inoculated at ca 10-20 CFU g(-1) into minced retail meat and enriched for 6 h at 41.5 degrees C as follows: E. coli O26 in tryptone soya broth (TSB) supplemented with cefixime (50 microg l(-1)), vancomycin (40 mg l(-1)) and potassium tellurite (2.5 mg l(-1)); E. coli O111 in TSB supplemented with cefixime (50 microg l(-1)) and vancomycin (40 mg l(-1)); E. coli O157 in E. coli broth supplemented with novobiocin (20 mg l(-1)). DNA was extracted from the enriched cultures, and detected and quantified by real-time PCR using verotoxin (vt1 and vt2) and serogroup (O157 per gene; O26 fliC-fliA genes and O111 wzy gene) specific primers.
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During the last decade, the prevalence of infectious diarrheal diseases due to consumption of contaminated food especially raw vegetable has been increasingly reported. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains are an important group of diarrheagenic E. coli that can cause infant diarrhea especially in the developing world.
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a total of 677 clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae obtained from January 2010 to December 2013 in Fukuoka, Japan. A molecular analysis by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing was conducted on the azithromycin-resistant isolates.
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Utilization of carrier-mediated transport systems in the gastrointestinal tract to increase the bioavailability of drugs is of great interest. In the present study, an increased supply of the driving force for peptide transporter PEPT1 by utilizing a proton-releasing polymer, Eudragit L100-55, was employed to increase the intestinal transport activity. Intestinal absorption of zwitterionic cefadroxil and dianionic cefixime was studied in rats by using in situ ileal closed loops and by in vivo oral administration of the drugs concomitantly with Eudragit L100-55. The results showed that Eudragit L100-55 decreased the pH in the intestinal loops, and increased the disappearance of both cefadroxil and cefixime from the loops. In rats, the plasma concentration after oral administration was increased significantly by coadministration of Eudragit L100-55, whereas a proton-nonreleasing analogous polymer, Eudragit RSPO, did not have any effect. Furthermore, the increased absorption of cefixime caused by Eudragit L100-55 was blocked by simultaneous administration of cefadroxil, a PEPT1 substrate/inhibitor, in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that improvement of intestinal absorption of peptide-mimetics via a peptide transporter is possible by optimizing the transporter activity through coadministration of a proton-releasing polymer that supplies the driving force for the transporter.
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Escherichia coli O157 is considered to be one of most important human pathogens of animal origin which causes serious clinical complications. One of the most common methods to isolate E. coli O157 is the immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique which employs specific antibodies coupled to magnetic beads to bind and extract cells from enrichment broths followed by plating onto sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime and potassium tellurite (CT-SMAC) plates. The aim of this study was to determine strain variation by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) among E. coli O157 on IMS/CT-SMAC plates.
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To review evidence supporting use of fluoroquinolones as first line agents over other antibiotics for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever).
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MALDI-TOF MS for a real-time detection and cluster analysis of gonorrhea is a promising tool for surveillance purposes. Moreover, additional studies are required to collect more data on the performance of MALDI-TOF MS for gonococci.
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Emergence of antibiotic resistant Helicobacter pylori has necessitated the identification of alternate therapies for the treatment of this infection.
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We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of ceftriaxone for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea compared with four other antibiotics. Thirteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) totalling treatment of 2557 patients with uncomplicated gonorrhoea were included. Statistically significant differences were observed in side-effects, which were increased after ceftriaxone 250 mg versus cefotaxime 500 mg (odds ratio [OR] 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-3.08). Cure rates of ceftriaxone 250 mg were significantly better than cefixime 400 mg (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.11-2.80) as was ceftriaxone 125 mg versus spectinomycin 2 g (OR 3.44; 95% CI 1.08-10.90). There was no statistically significant difference between ceftriaxone 250 mg and cefixime 800 mg in cure rates (OR 1.39; 95% CI 0.92-2.10) or adverse effects (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.58-2.84) for treating uncomplicated gonorrhoea. The cure rate after ceftriaxone 250 mg was not significantly different from that after spectinomycin 2 g (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.00-3.87). In conclusion, this meta-analysis revealed that 250 mg ceftriaxone had a higher efficacy than 400 mg cefixime for uncomplicated gonorrhoea. Also, ceftriaxone 125 mg is a better choice than spectinomycin 2 g for patients with uncomplicated gonorrhoea, but ceftriaxone had higher side-effect rates than cefotaxime. In the current era further randomized controlled clinical trials of ceftriaxone for uncomplicated gonorrhoea are warranted.