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The use of antibiotics as a prophylactic measure against infection is widespread following the removal of impacted third molars. The advantages of using such prophylaxis appear to be marginal and there is little substantial evidence to support the use of second and third generation antibiotics for routine prophylaxis. An audit of antibiotic prescribing practices in the University Dental Hospital National Health Service Trust (Cardiff) was undertaken and demonstrated the potential for saving large sums of money whilst apparently incurring no clinical disadvantage. The value of such audit process in oral and maxillofacial surgery is in identifying best practice followed by measuring and, where possible, improving standards.
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Self-medication with antimicrobial drugs is an important problem in the world and may lead to serious consequences for healthcare systems.
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In an attempt to investigate the possibility of re-establishing the use of penicillins in the treatment of gonorrhoea in Singapore, a series of studies were conducted between 1981 and 1984, to evaluate the efficacy of a variety of penicillin-clavulanic acid combinations. A total of 6 different regimens were evaluated, and we concluded that 3 regimens consisting of 2 doses of Augmentin 3.25 g P.O., 4 hours apart (regimen C), aqueous procaine penicillin G (APPG) 4.5 mega units I.M. + Augmentin 375 mg + probenecid 1g P.O. (regimen E), and APPG 4.5 mega units I.M. + Augmentin 750 mg + probenecid 1g P.O. (regimen F) were very efficacious against infection due to PPNG and non PPNG. The cure rates obtained were 96.6% (regimens C and E), and 95% (regimen F) for infection due to PPNG and 95.6% (regimen C), and 100% (regimens E and F) for those due to non PPNG. Regimen E consisting of aqueous procaine penicillin G 4.5 meg units I.M. + Augmentin 375 mg + probenecid 1g P.O. was felt to be economical as well as effective against PPNG and non PPNG, and had the potential advantage of being effective against incubating syphillis. Regimen consisting 2 oral doses of Augmentin 3.25 g, 4 hours apart was an effective therapy for patients who preferred oral medication alone. However, this therapy was most costly. No serious side effects of treatment were observed with any of the regimens used.
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Premature birth carries substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Subclinical infection is associated with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM). Prophylactic maternal antibiotic therapy might lessen infectious morbidity and delay labour, but could suppress labour without treating underlying infection.
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Streptococcus pneumoniae was recovered from 12 (50%) samples of middle ear fluid of 24 consecutive patients with AOME and in mixed culture of middle ear pathogens from one (4%) additional specimen. Two (15.3%) isolates had intermediate resistance to penicillin (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.125 and 1.0 micrograms/mL). The antimicrobial susceptibility to various antimicrobials of 30 S pneumoniae strains recovered from patients seen in the last 12 months was also determined. One of the patients with AOME developed bacteremia that resolved uneventfully, whereas the other developed meningitis. MIC90 was determined from penicillin (2 micrograms/mL), erythromycin (> 32 micrograms/mL), cefaclor (32 micrograms/mL), loracarbef (> or = 64 micrograms/mL), cefixime (16 micrograms/mL), ceftibuten (> 64 micrograms/mL), chloramphenicol (16 micrograms/mL), cefpodoxime (4 micrograms/mL), ciprofloxacin (2 micrograms/mL), cephalexin (> or = micrograms/mL), augmentin (2 micrograms/mL), cefprozil (8 micrograms/mL), clindamycin (64 micrograms/mL), TMP-SXT (> 64 micrograms/mL), clarithromycin (32 micrograms/mL), rifampin (0.06 micrograms/mL), cefuroxime (2 micrograms/mL), cefotaxime (0.25 micrograms/mL), vancomycin (0.25 micrograms/mL), and imipenem (0.5 micrograms/mL). Cefprozil, vancomycin, and rifampin inhibited all strains, whereas cefpodoxime, cefuroxime, clindamycin, and clarithromycin exhibited very good activity.
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The aim of this study was to characterize ampicillin resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae from Portugal. Association between specific patterns of amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) (with or without β-lactamase production) and β-lactam susceptibility as well as genetic relatedness among isolates were investigated.
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Our results demonstrated for first time in the studied aria, using E-test strips, the level of resistance of N. gonorrhoeae offering useful informations for clinicians in order to treat the patients with ceftrixone and spectinomycine as empirical treatment, and for other antibiotics, according with antibiogram results.
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A high incidence (39%) of positive direct antiglobulin tests (DATs) has been reported in patients taking Unasyn [ampicillin sodium plus sulbactam sodium (a beta-lactamase inhibitor)]. Three of four patients, with positive DATs, receiving Unasyn or Timentin [ticarcillin disodium plus clavulanate potassium (also a beta-lactamase inhibitor)] developed a haemolytic anaemia (HA) associated with a positive DAT, which resolved when drug therapy was stopped. The patients' sera did not react with red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of Unasyn or Timentin, but when drug-treated RBCs were tested, patients' sera and normal sera reacted equally by indirect antiglobulin test. Following incubation in normal sera, RBCs treated with Unasyn, Timentin, Augmentin (amoxicillin + clavulanate), sulbactam and clavulanate reacted with anti-human globulin and anti-human albumin (an index of non-specific adsorption); RBCs treated with ampicillin and amoxicillin were nonreactive. The beta-lactamase inhibitors sulbactam and clavulanate seem to cause nonimmunologic adsorption of protein onto RBCs in vitro. This may explain the high incidence of positive DATs detected in patients taking Unasyn, which contains sulbactam. It was not possible to prove that there was a direct association between the nonspecific uptake of protein onto drug-treated RBCs in vitro with the positive DATs or the HA.
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The clinical course in neonates with UTI treated with short-term intravenous antibiotic followed by oral treatment is highly favorable, both in short and long terms. The absence of meningitis and the good evolution of the associated bacteremias argue in favor of a review of the habitual diagnostic-therapeutic protocol in neonates.