By targeting the erm(41) and rrl genes in the Mycobacterium abscessus group, a multiplex real-time PCR assay for clarithromycin resistance showed 95% (38/40) concordance with nucleic acid testing and 95% (37/39) concordance with phenotypic testing. This assay provides a simple and rapid alternative to extended incubation or erm(41) sequencing.
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H pylori screening programme followed by randomised placebo controlled trial of eradication.
A 65-year-old Japanese male farmer with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma and multiple hepatic metastases was admitted to our hospital. Blood culture results were positive on day 5, and Gram-positive rods were detected. According to the results of Ziehl-Neelsen staining and a cultured colony of this bacterium, we suspected a mycobacterial infection. Suspecting a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM), we started multidrug therapy with levofloxacin, clarithromycin, and ethambutol, and the patient recovered from the bloodstream infection. Further gene examination (16S rRNA, hsp65, and sodA) revealed an isolate of Mycobacterium conceptionense. M. conceptionense was first identified as an RGM in 2006. Among previous case reports of M. conceptionense infections, bone and soft tissue infections in hosts with a disorder of the normal structure (e.g., surgical sites) were dominant. We report the characteristics of M. conceptionense infection in this first Japanese case report and a review of the literature.
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To obtain a rapid, inexpensive method of determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of several drugs acting on multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB), a colorimetric, microplate-based assay (M-MTT) was developed.
A total of 67 H. pylori strains isolated from gastritis and peptic ulcer patients of Kolkata were examined in the study. Minimum inhibitory concentration to the antibiotics was determined by the agar dilution method.
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Overall, 144 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. Following the triple therapy, H. pylori infection was cured in 49 out of 72 (68.1%; 95% CI=57-79) patients and in 49 out of 71 (69.1%; 95% CI=58-80) at intention-to-treat and per protocol analyses, respectively. Following the quadruple regimen, the infection was cured in 52 out of 72 (72.2%; 95% CI=62-83) and in 52 out of 68 (76.5; 95% CI=66-87) patients at intention-to-treat and per protocol analyses, respectively. No statistically significant difference emerged between the two therapy regimens.
On intention-to-treat analysis, eradication rates (with 95% confidence intervals [CI]) were 66.6% (53-80%) in the RAP150 and QT groups, respectively, and 86.6% (76-96%) in RAP300 group (p < 0.025). Most patients harboring metronidazole- and clarithromycin-resistant strains were eradicated at an equal rate by each of the three regimens. Side effects were observed in 9% and 11% of rifabutin-treated patients, and in 47% of those on quadruple therapy (p < 0.0001).
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Helicobacter pylori infection and overexpression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) are associated with gastric cancer and its precursors. To evaluate the effect of a selective COX-2 inhibitor alone and combined with H pylori eradication on the evolution of precancerous gastric lesions, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Linqu County, Shandong Province, China.
Employing the whole-cell patch clamp technique in rat peritoneal mast cells, we examined the effects of clarithromycin on Cm during exocytosis. Using a water-soluble fluorescent dye, we also examined its effect on deformation of the plasma membrane.
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Korean isolates of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, which had been isolated from two different hospitals in South Korea, were identified by PCR restriction analysis (PRA) and comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, rpoB, and hsp65 to evaluate the proportion of four closely related species (M. chelonae, M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii). Of the 144 rapidly growing mycobacterial strains tested, 127 strains (88.2%) belonged to the M. chelonae-M. abscessus group. In this group, M. chelonae, M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii accounted for 0.8% (n = 1), 51.2% (n = 65), 46.5% (n = 59), and 1.6% (n = 2), respectively. Two isolates which showed discordant results, M. massiliense by rpoB sequence analysis and M. abscessus by hsp65 sequence analysis, were finally identified as M. massiliense based on the additional analysis of sodA and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer. M. abscessus group I isolates previously identified by hsp65 PRA were all found to be M. abscessus, whereas group II isolates were further identified as M. massiliense or M. bolletii by sequencing of rpoB and hsp65. Smooth, rough, or mixed colonies of both M. abscessus and M. massiliense isolates were observed. M. massiliense strains that were highly resistant to clarithromycin had a point mutation at the adenine at position 2058 (A(2058)) or 2059 (A(2059)) in the peptidyltransferase region of the 23S rRNA gene.
The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and therapeutic management of coinfection by mycobacteria in the authors hospital.
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In a large-scale nationwide study of use in clinical practice, RAC therapy was confirmed to be effective and safe.