Predominant Bifidobacterium strains belonging to the intestinal flora of four human volunteers were isolated on selective medium before and after eight days of treatment with oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Augmentin). These antimicrobial agents are known to be strongly active against the genus Bifidobacterium. A fifth volunteer did not receive the antibiotics and was considered as a control. Bifidobacteria were characterized by hybridizing a ribosomal 23S DNA probe onto their EcoRV restriction patterns, and were identified by comparing the ribosomal patterns obtained to collection strains. A total of 17 distinct ribosomal patterns and 23 distinct pattern types were revealed for the 95 isolates tested. Each type characterized was correlated with a specific ribosomal pattern associated with a specific total restriction pattern. Similar-sized molecular bands permitted isolates to be unambiguously discriminated into the species B. longum, B. bifidum, and B. adolescentis. This study enabled us to show considerable strain variability among individuals. Three months after penicillin ingestion, no significant changes were observed in Bifidobacterium flora. Each flora remained relatively stable for strain composition over time, with some slight variations also detected in our control subject.
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LY281389 is a new 14-member ring macrolide which is presently being developed for possible clinical use against bacterial infections. We compared the in vitro activity of LY281389 with erythromycin, ampicillin, augmentin and cephalexin against 610 clinical isolates. The new drug inhibited 97 and 11% of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates, respectively, 59% of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 63% of enterococci and 74% of Haemophilus influenzae. All the 171 isolates of Streptococcus Lancefield group A, group B and Streptococcus pneumoniae were susceptible to LY281389 at MIC values ranging between 0.03 and 0.24 micrograms/ml. In vitro activity of LY281389 against the bacteria tested was comparable to that of erythromycin.
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The presence of otitis media with effusion (OME) and high negative pressure (-200 to -400 mm H2O), were investigated in the follow-up of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial on the efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of acute otitis media. All children in this study were recruited from a general practice population. Tympanometry results 1 month from the start of an episode of acute otitis media were taken as outcome criteria. Bilateral middle ear dysfunction was defined as bilateral OME, unilateral OME and contralateral or bilateral high negative pressure. Bilateral middle ear dysfunction was present in 47.9% of the patients. Of all the investigated factors of possible influence (age, sex, season, laterality of acute otitis media, therapy, and clinical course of acute otitis media), only season showed a statistically significant influence on the persistence of OME/high negative pressure (P = 0.001). Bilateral middle ear dysfunction was shown to be of prognostic value for the risk of a recurrence of acute otitis media (odds ratio 3.75).
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We report a 25-year-old systemically healthy male who presented with periocular necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in the left eyelid. This was associated with the presence of immunologically mediated marginal kerato-conjunctivitis, in the same eye. This potentially dangerous lid infection and the associated ocular surface infection resolved successfully, with medical management. We report this case to highlight the successful conservative management of periocular NF and the hitherto unreported anterior segment involvement.
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An in vitro computerized pharmacodynamic simulation was carried out and colony counts determined over 24 h. Four H. influenzae strains were used, one ampicillin-susceptible strain (Strain 1) and three ampicillin-resistant strains following CLSI and BSAC breakpoints: one beta-lactamase-positive strain with an MIC of co-amoxiclav of 0.5 mg/L (Strain 2), one beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strain (BLNAR; ampicillin MIC = 16 mg/L) (Strain 3) and one beta-lactamase-positive strain with an MIC of co-amoxiclav of 4 mg/L (Strain 4). All strains were susceptible to cefuroxime and co-amoxiclav according to current CLSI breakpoints, but Strains 3 and 4 were resistant according to BSAC breakpoints. All strains exhibited cefditoren MIC
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The authors compare the risk of bacteraemia in open and laparoscopic appendectomy in a prospective randomized study.
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In healthy college women with uUTI symptoms, TMP-SMX should not be universally used for empirical therapy, whereas use of ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and nitrofurantoin are appropriate.
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Combined parenteral and intramammary treatment of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus was compared to parenteral treatment only. Cows with clinical mastitis (166 mastitic quarters) caused by S. aureus treated by veterinarians of the Ambulatory Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine during routine farm calls were included. Treatment was based on in vitro susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolate. Procaine penicillin G (86 cases due to beta-lactamase negative strains) or amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (24 cases due to beta-lactamase positive strains) was administered parenterally and intramammarily for 5 days. Efficacy of treatments was assessed 2 and 4 weeks later by physical examination, bacteriological culture, determination of CMT, somatic cell count and NAGase activity in milk. Quarters with growth of S. aureus in at least one post-treatment sample were classified as non-cured. As controls we used 41 clinical mastitis cases caused by penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates treated with procaine penicillin G parenterally for 5 days and 15 cases due to penicillin-resistant isolates treated with spiramycin parenterally for 5 days from the same practice area. Bacteriological cure rate after the combination treatment was 75.6% for quarters infected with penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, and 29.2% for quarters infected with penicillin-resistant isolates. Cure rate for quarters treated only parenterally with procaine penicillin G was 56.1% and that for quarters treated with spiramycin 33.3%. The difference in cure rates between mastitis due to penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant S. aureus was highly significant. Combined treatment was superior over systemic treatment only in the beta-lactamase negative group.
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is widely recognised as an important cause of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children. Pulmonary manifestations are typically tracheobronchitis or pneumonia but M. pneumoniae is also implicated in wheezing episodes in both asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals. Although antibiotics are used to treat LRTIs, a review of several major textbooks offers conflicting advice for using antibiotics in the management of M. pneumoniae LRTI in children.
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: Clinical cure was obtained in 90.2% (222 of 246) of patients in the gatifloxacin group and 84.3% (102 of 121) of those in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group (95% confidence interval, -1.9-12.9) 3-10 days after treatment ended. Gatifloxacin was associated with higher clinical cure rates than was amoxicillin/clavulanate in children younger than 2 years of age (92.0% versus 80.0%, respectively). Cure rates by pretreatment pathogen in the gatifloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate groups were 92.1% (35 of 38) versus 88.9% (16 of 18) for Streptococcus pneumoniae infections and 88.2% (30 of 34) versus 92.3% (12 of 13) for Haemophilus influenzae infections, respectively. Sustained clinical cures 3-4 weeks after treatment ended were obtained in 74.4% (183 of 246) of patients treated with gatifloxacin and 72.7% (88 of 121) of those treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate. Adverse events considered drug-related occurred with similar frequency in the 2 groups. Six patients (2.2%) in the gatifloxacin group and 2 patients (1.5%) in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group developed transient symptoms of mild or moderate arthralgia.
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Forty-three episodes (8.8% of cases of bacteremia due to E. coli) were included; 70% of the isolates produced a CTX-M type of ESBL. The most frequent origins of infection were the urinary (46%) and biliary tracts (21%). Acquisition was nosocomial in 21 cases (49%), health care associated in 14 cases (32%), and strictly community acquired in 8 cases (19%). Thirty-eight percent and 25% of patients had obstructive diseases of the urinary and biliary tracts, respectively, and 38% had recently received antimicrobials. Nine patients (21%) died. Compared with beta-lactam/beta-lactamase-inhibitor and carbapenem-based regimens, empirical therapy with cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones was associated with a higher mortality rate (9% vs. 35%; P=.05) and needed to be changed more frequently (24% vs. 78%; P=.001).
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A Fifteen years girl belonging to a low socioeconomic status was admitted with peritonsillar abscess caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), high fever, diarrhoea and septicaemic shock. Initial blood cultures and widal test, stool cultures and routine stool examination were non-contributory to the diagnosis. A bone marrow culture in the second week confirmed the diagnosis of Salmonella typhi infection. Examination of a fresh stool sample showed cysts of Entamoeba histolytica. She was treated with ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, augmentin and ceftriaxone. She had no clinical evidence of immunosuppression prior to this episode and her HIV test was negative. This case report highlights the presence of community acquired MRSA infection causing perititonsillar abscess, and the diagnostic dilemma of fever and diarrhoea due to coinfection with Salmonella typhi and Entamobea histolytica.