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Clostridium difficile infection is primarily a nosocomial infection but asymptomatic carriers of Clostridium difficile can be found in up to 5% of the general population. Ampicillin, cephalosporins and clindamycin are the antibiotics that are most frequently associated with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea or colitis. Little is known about acute renal failure as a consequence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.
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One hundred and seven GBS isolates collected from vagino-rectal swabs from 600 post-menopausal women were analysed for their capsular type, antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness (multilocus sequence typing, MLST).
The new thiazolyl peptide antibiotic MDL 62,879 (GE2270 A) showed excellent in vitro activity in testing against staphylococci and streptococci, with MIC90s ranging from 0.23 to 0.9 mg/l. It was very active against Clostridium difficile and Propionibacterium acnes (MIC90 0.06 mg/l in each case) and had variable activity against Bacteroides spp. MDL 62,879 had exceptionally good activity against Enterococcus faecalis, including against a collection of high-level aminoglycoside-resistant isolates where it had an MIC90 of 0.047. The antibiotic was bacteriostatic for enterococcal isolates but bactericidal for a methicillin-resistant isolate of Staphylococcus aureus.
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The present multicenter study was performed to evaluate the effect of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on combination therapy using aztreonam (AZT) and clindamycin (CLDM) to treat severe infection in neutropenic patients with hematologic diseases. Forty-three neutropenic patients with infections (rhG-CSF group) were treated with AZT (2 g) and CLDM (600 mg) 2-3 times daily as well as rhG-CSF (Lenograstim or Filgrastim: 2-5 mu/kg/day). The clinical efficacy of this regimen was compared to that obtained in 44 febrile neutropenic patients, with hematologic diseases, who received only AZT and CLDM in a previous study (historical control group). The overall efficacy rate was 69.8% (30/43) in the rhG-CSF group and 65.9% (29/44) in the historical control group. Although the neutrophil count was significantly increased and C-reactive protein tended to be lower in the rhG-CSF group, the daily maximum body temperature profiles of the 2 groups were nearly the same. These results suggest that rhG-CSF is of little benefit in the treatment of single infectious episodes in neutropenic patients, and that appropriate antibiotic therapy is more important.
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From 260 infants followed for 3096 patient-months, we detected pneumococci in 360/1394 (25.8%) samples. HIV-exposed infants were colonized more frequently than HIV-unexposed infants (risk ratio, RR: 1.4; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.0-1.9, P = 0.04). Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis reduced colonization by ca 7% but increased the risk of colonization with co-trimoxazole-resistant pneumococci within 6 weeks of starting prophylaxis (RR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.3-7.8, P = 0.04). Prophylaxis with co-trimoxazole led to a small but statistically significant increase of nasopharyngeal colonization with pneumococci not susceptible to clindamycin (RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.6, P = 0.04) but did not increase the risk of non-susceptibility to penicillin (RR: 1.1; 95% CI: 0.7-1.7), erythromycin (RR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.6-1.7), tetracycline (RR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.6-1.5) or chloramphenicol (RR: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.3-2.3). Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis did not cause the prevailing pneumococcal serotypes to differ from those that are targeted by the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (RR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.7-1.6).
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most common multidrug-resistant pathogen causing nosocomial infections across the world. MRSA is not only associated with significant mortality and morbidity but also places a large economic strain on our health care system. MRSA isolates are also typically resistant to multiple, non-β-lactam antibiotics. We conducted a prospective study in a tertiary care hospital, to determine the prevalence of MRSA and to establish the clonal distribution of MRSA isolates recovered from various clinical specimens.
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In the last years has been observed an increased incidence of invasive group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections, including the toxic shock syndrome. The most common portal of entry is the skin and mucous membranes. The toxic shock syndrome can occurred as a rare complication of pharyngitis. The association between varicella and the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs with necrotizing fasciitis by Streptococcus pyogenes has been discussed without reach at consensus, but some authors disapproved the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in this viral infection. The authors reported the clinical case of a 12 year old adolescent, that 15 days after the diagnosis of mononucleosis infectious confirmed by serology and treated with ibuprofen, was internment by streptococcal toxic shock syndrome with rhabdomyolysis, hepatitis, cellulitis of the leg, arthritis of the knee and pleural effusion. Therapeutics was made with penicillin G and clindamycin. We present this case for the severity of the clinical situation and for the questions that rise.
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Fifty-eight of 664 identified studies were selected and included in this review. A search of the literature did not identify any prospective clinical trials that were conducted exclusively in the elderly. Information on the treatment of SSTIs in the elderly was based solely on clinical studies that were conducted in adults in general. As recommended by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) 2008 update, SSTIs should be suspected in elderly patients who have skin lesions and present with a decline in functional status, with or without fever. Patients who present with symptoms of systemic toxicity should be hospitalized for further evaluation. Current challenges in the management of SSTIs include the rapid emergence of community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), the emergence of macrolide-resistant streptococci within the past decade, and the lack of a reliable algorithm to differentiate potentially life-threatening SSTIs that require aggressive interventions and prompt hospitalization from those that can be managed in an outpatient setting. S aureus was the most common cause of SSTIs, being isolated in 42.8% (5015/11,723) of wounds, followed by streptococci. Common SSTIs in the elderly such as shingles, diabetic foot infections, infected pressure ulcers, and scabies, and their treatment were also discussed. Based on reviews of published trials, treatment of simple SSTIs generally consisted of administration of agents with activity against S aureus and Streptococcus species such as a penicillinase-resistant β-lactam, a first-generation cephalosporin, or clindamycin. Broadening of the antimicrobial spectrum to include gram-negative and anaerobic organisms should be implemented for complicated SSTIs such as diabetic foot infections and infected pressure ulcers. Local rates of MRSA, CA-MRSA, and macrolide-resistant streptococci should be considered when selecting empiric therapy.
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There were 19 pregnant women among 346 malaria cases (5.4%). The average age was 27 years. The gestational age (trimester) was: 53% 3rd, 31% 1st, 16% 2nd. All but one were multigravidae. Three were HIV positive. All were sub-Saharan immigrants: two were recently arrived immigrants and seventeen (89%) had visited friends and relatives. None had taken prophylaxis nor seeked pre-travel advice.
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The cfr gene was detected in 14 meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from outpatients with community-onset infections in a county hospital in China. The MIC of linezolid was 4 μg ml- 1 in eight isolates and 2 μg ml- 1 in six isolates. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin, but had elevated MICs for penicillin (0.5-128 μg ml- 1), chloramphenicol (2-32 μg ml- 1), clindamycin (0.5-128 μg ml- 1) and erythromycin (4-128 μg ml- 1). Nine isolates had mutations on domain V of 23S rRNA and/or the ribosomal L proteins that were not located close to the linezolid-binding pocket. Southern blotting experiments demonstrated that the cfr genes in all 14 isolates resided on plasmids. Sequence analysis of the 5.6 kb cfr-carrying plasmid segment revealed 99 % identity to the corresponding sequences in plasmid pSS-01 from animal staphylococci and plasmid pRM-01 from human staphylococci. Five isolates belonged to sequence type (ST)188 and three to ST965; the two ST types were previously reported in isolates of animal origin in some areas of China. These results indicate that the cfr-carrying plasmids in this study are likely of animal origin. The present study shows that cfr-harbouring S. aureus isolates have emerged in some areas of China and that cfr-carrying isolates may be transmitted between animals and humans.