Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for selected antimicrobial agents against 872 bacteria isolated from intramammary infections in heifers in New Zealand (n = 401) and Denmark (n = 471). These values were reported in micrograms per milliliters. Antimicrobial agents tested against isolates from New Zealand were penicillin, cloxacillin, cephapirin, ceftiofur, novobiocin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, and pirlimycin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations that inhibit 90% of the strains tested for these antimicrobial agents with Staphylococcus aureus were 4.0, 0.5, 0.5, 2.0, 1.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration values that inhibit 90% of the strains tested against the Staphylococcus spp. ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 for all antimicrobics. The minimum inhibitory concentrations against streptococci were < or = 0.06, 0.5, 0.13, 0.13, 4.0, 1.0, 0.13, and < or = 0.06, respectively. Antimicrobial agents tested against isolates from Denmark included penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, penicillin plus novobiocin, erythromycin, and pirlimycin. Against S. aureus, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.13, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 1.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.5, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations against Staphylococcus spp. were 0.25, 0.25, 0.5, 0.5, 1.0, < or = 0.06, 0.13, 1.0, and 0.5, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations against the streptococci were < or = 0.06, 0.13, 0.5, 0.5, 1.0, < or = 0.06, 0.13, 0.5, and 0.5, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration values for staphylococci from New Zealand and Denmark were similar to values reported for US isolates. Streptococci from New Zealand and Denmark had lower minimum inhibitory concentration values than did US isolates. Only ceftiofur and enrofloxacin were active against the Gram-negative bacilli.
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A post hoc analysis in 72 adult female patients (aged ≥25 years) with moderate-to-severe acne receiving clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel or vehicle for 12 weeks.
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Two hundred seventy-five surveys were returned. The EMPs used a variety of approaches in the antibiotic treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. Two hundred seven (75.3%) of 275 were board-certified EMPs and were included in the analysis. Commonly used agents for outpatient treatment include trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, cephalexin, rifampin, and tetracyclines. For patients requiring admission, 60% of providers would include vancomycin in their treatment regimen.
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Pneumococcal isolates were prospectively collected by 14 different clinical microbiology laboratories. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of penicillin G, erythromycin A, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin, levofloxacin and telithromycin were determined by the broth microdilution method.
The correct surveillance and control of infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) needs of update knowledge of its specific properties in each place. Our study aims to describe the current characteristics of infection due to MRSA in Extremadura. During 2010, 309 MRSA were collected from clinical samples in our region. A susceptibility test that included 17 antibiotics tested by AST -588 card Vitek 2 ® and E -test method was performed on all isolates. A sample of 100 strains, selected by stratified random sampling, were genotyped by pulsed field electrophoresis (PFGE). The prevalence of MRSA in Extremadura was 20.2%. Don Benito-Villanueva area showed the most prevalence and a higher incidence. Merida reported the most favourable situation, with a relatively low ratios of prevalence and incidence. The community acquired reached 44 % in the region, showing predominantly in less populated areas (Navalmoral and Coria). The most common multiresistant pattern was tobramycin-levofloxacin-erythromycin (44%), followed tobramycin-erythromycin-clindamycin (20%). No linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline resistant strains were observed, but 42 % of the MRSA strains showed decreased susceptibility vancomycin (DSV). PFGE analysis reported 27 genotypes, with 3 major genotypes: E8a (25%), E7b (17%) and E7a (12%). The post-hoc statistical analysis did not reveal significant differences in the distribution of genotypes between different areas. However it revealed some trends that should be considered.
The therapeutic efficacy of ciprofloxacin in the treatment of experimental intra-abdominal abscesses in mice caused by a strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis was compared with that of ampicillin and clindamycin. The abscesses were produced by intraperitoneal administration of a bacterial suspension obtained by bacterial culture of S epidermidis diluted to 10(8) CFU/ml mixed with sterilized rat feces and barium sulphate in male BALB/C mice. The following doses of antibiotics were given twice a day for seven days: ciprofloxacin, 1 microgram/100 microliters; clindamycin, 1.5 micrograms/100 microliters; and ampicillin, 3.6 micrograms/100 microliters. The antibiotic serum and pus concentrations were also determined by an agar well diffusion assay. The maximum serum concentrations were obtained 30 minutes after intraperitoneal administration (ciprofloxacin, 2.7 micrograms/ml; clindamycin, 9.0 micrograms/ml; ampicillin, 3.9 micrograms/ml). The penetration inside the abscess was also satisfactory (ciprofloxacin, 0.51 microgram/ml; clindamycin, 3.4 micrograms/ml; ampicillin, 3.8 micrograms/ml). A favorable clinical and bacteriologic response was obtained in 69% of the mice following the ciprofloxacin treatment and in 56% following ampicillin. The efficacy of ciprofloxacin was much higher than that of clindamycin and ampicillin, presumably because of its much higher intrinsic potency against the pathogen rather than for its pharmacokinetic characteristics and its penetration inside the abscess.
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The authors discuss the reasons for the frequently fatal outcome of infections in the newborn and report their own bacteriological findings in cases of perinatal infections. The predominant organisms were group D streptococci, staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, and anerobic bacteria, most of which were sensitive to clindamycin. Following introduction of clindamycin therapy, in combination with an aminoglycoside or ampicillin, the duration of hospitalization was shortened by an average of six days, and the duration of treatment by an average of three days.
Immunocompromised people who are infected by B. microti are at risk of persistent relapsing illness. Such patients generally require antibabesial treatment for >or=6 weeks to achieve cure, including 2 weeks after parasites are no longer detected on blood smear.