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All maternity units in the UK.
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A 68-year-old Caucasian man arrived at the hospital with a fever (38.5 °C) and a foul-smelling pressure ulcer on his left foot and was admitted for treatment of a moderate diabetic foot infection. The patient's medical history included type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, cataract surgery, and total hip arthroplasty. A tissue biopsy of the diabetic foot lesion was performed, and a blood sample was cultured. Empirical antimicrobial treatment consisting of amoxicillin-clavulanate 1.2 g (of amoxicillin) i.v. every 12 hours and ciprofloxacin 200 mg i.v. every 12 hours was initiated to target aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative and anaerobic microorganisms. After 48 hours, the results of the blood culture were negative, but the left ankle wound culture grew R. ornithinolytica. Although the isolated R. ornithinolytica was relatively sensitive, showing resistance only to cefazolin and ampicillin, the antibiotic regimen was not changed. The patient showed clinical and laboratory improvement during his 5-day hospitalization. Subsequently, i.v. antibiotics were discontinued, and the patient was discharged on oral amoxicillin-clavulanate 1 g (of amoxicillin) twice daily and oral ciprofloxacin 750 mg twice daily for an additional 9 days to complete a total duration of 14 days of treatment, after which the infection was completely resolved.
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When using MicroScan, E. faecium strains resistant to ampicillin (betalactamase non producers) must be also considered resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid without considering the values obtained by this system.
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RO 23-6240 (fleroxacin), pefloxacin, augmentin, cefaclor, cef-uroxime, ceftazidime, vancomycin, piperacillin and amikacin were tested against a wide variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The MICs of fleroxacin were very similar to those of pefloxacin. Against all the bacterial groups tested, the quinolones compared favorably with the other antimicrobials tested, particularly against the more resistant species such as Corynebacterium group JK and D2 and methicillin-resistant staphylococci.
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Toxic hepatitis secondary to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid is an infrequent clinical picture. Most of the cases are reported to have a benign course. We report two cases of severe hepatic failure following amoxycillin-clavulanic acid use. One of the cases had cholestatic features primarily, and the other had hepatocellular injury prominently. The first case had also findings of trombotic trombositic purpura and had a fatal course.
From January 1992 to December 1995, kept records of antibiograms of all urinary pathogens isolated were examined. Samples were derived from hospital sources (wards and out-patient clinics) and general practice sources (health centers and general practitioners). Quantitative bacteriologic cultures were performed according to standard laboratory procedures, and identification of isolates were based on Gram reaction, morphology and biochemical characteristics. Significant bacteriuria was defined as the presence of greater than 100,000 organisms per mL of a midstream urine specimen or more than 3000 bacteria per mL in a catheter specimen of a single specie. Antimicrobial sensitivities were done using the following antibiotics: norfloxacin, ampicillin, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim), trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, cephalexin and augmentin (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid). Control organism was E coli NCTC 10,418 strain.
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This study compared co-amoxiclav, vancomycin and teicoplanin with and without netilmicin or amikacin for treating experimental subcutaneous fibrin-clot infection in rabbits due to a clinical beta-lactamase-positive methicillin- and gentamicin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain (MGRSE). MICs (mg/L) for this strain were: oxacillin 125, gentamicin 32, vancomycin 4, teicoplanin 8, netilmicin 1, amikacin 4, amoxycillin 64 with clavulanate at 2 mg/L. In rabbits treated with a single-dose i.v. regimen (netilmicin 8 mg/kg, amikacin 20 mg/kg, vancomycin 30 mg/kg, teicoplanin 15 mg/kg, co-amoxiclav 150-30 mg/kg), the bacterial count 24 h post-dose was reduced whatever the combination used (ANOVA, P < or = 0.001). Regimens were statistically classified in decreasing order of efficacy as follows: co-amoxiclav combined with netilmicin > vancomycin either alone or combined with either netilmicin or amikacin, teicoplanin with netilmicin > netilmicin and co-amoxiclav alone > teicoplanin or co-amoxiclav combined with amikacin, and teicoplanin alone > amikacin > no drug. From these findings, it is concluded that: co-amoxiclav could be useful for the treatment of beta-lactamase-positive and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis infection; some enzyme-resistant aminoglycoside could be considered for treating gentamicin-resistant but netilmicin/amikacin-sensitive S. epidermidis infection; the combination of co-amoxiclav with netilmicin was synergistic and more rapidly bactericidal than vancomycin in this animal model.
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Rate of a single dose of cefazolin usage as antibiotic prophylaxis in gynecologic surgery was similar to before guideline implementation. However, postoperative oral antibiotics usage decreased significantly, especially among the staff.