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Of 901 group B streptococcus strains analyzed, 13 (1.4%) were resistant to levofloxacin (MICs of >32 μg/ml for seven isolates, 2 μg/ml for four isolates, and 1.5 μg/ml for four isolates). Mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrase and topoisomerase IV were identified. A double mutation involving the Ser-81 change to Leu for gyrA and the Ser-79 change to Phe or to Tyr for parC was linked to a high level of fluoroquinolone resistance. In addition, two other mutational positions in parC were observed, resulting in an Asp-83-to-Tyr substitution and an Asp-83-to-Asn substitution. Different mutations were also observed in gyrB, with unknown significance. Most levofloxacin-resistant GBS strains were of serotype Ib and belonged to sequence type 19 (ST19) and clonal complex 19 (CC-19). Most of them exhibited the epsilon gene.
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The study sample comprised 1000 consecutive patients (mean age, 49 ± 15 y, 42% men, 33% peptic ulcer) of whom 97% took all medications correctly. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 75.1% (95% confidence interval, 72%-78%) and 73.8% (95% confidence interval, 71%-77%). Efficacy (intention-to-treat) was 76% in the year 2006, 68% in 2007, 70% in 2008, 76% in 2009, 74% in 2010, and 81% in 2011. In the multivariate analysis, none of the studied variables (including diagnosis and year of treatment) were associated with success of eradication. Adverse effects were reported in 20% of patients, most commonly nausea (7.9%), metallic taste (3.9%), myalgia (3.1%), and abdominal pain (2.9%).
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To separate Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii from Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus using species identification, and to investigate the in vitro activity of amikacin, cefoxitin, imipenem, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and linezolid against Mycobacterium abscessus.
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Helicobacter pylori eradication rates with standard triple therapy have declined to unacceptable levels.
Oral administration of LVFX is a simple, cost-effective and safe alternative to intravenous prophylaxis in ESS based on clinical efficacy and bacteriological study.
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In an open-label, randomized, cross-over study of five patients with cystic fibrosis and five age, sex, race, and serum creatinine matched healthy volunteers received 750 mg of oral levofloxacin alone daily for 5 days and the same dose of levofloxacin with 2-h spaced calcium carbonate supplementation 500 mg po thrice daily with meals in random sequence. Blood was collected for plasma assay of levofloxacin pre-dose, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24h after the fifth levofloxacin dose.
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Four studies met the inclusion criteria for this review, including 100,876 adults and 131 endophthalmitis cases. While the sample size is very large, the heterogeneity of the study designs and modes of antibiotic delivery made it impossible to conduct a formal meta-analysis. Interventions investigated in the studies included the utility of adding vancomycin and gentamycin to the irrigating solution compared with standard balanced saline solution irrigation alone, use of intracameral cefuroxime and/or topical levofloxacin perioperatively, periocular penicillin injections and topical chloramphenicol-sulphadimidine drops compared with topical antibiotics alone, and mode of antibiotic delivery (subconjunctival versus retrobulbar injections). Two studies with adequate sample sizes to evaluate a rare outcome found reduced risk of endophthalmitis with antibiotic injections during surgery compared with topical antibiotics alone: risk ratio (RR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 0.92 (periocular penicillin versus topical chloramphenicol-sulphadimidine) and RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.74 (intracameral cefuroxime versus topical levofloxacin). Another study found no significant difference in endophthalmitis when comparing subconjunctival versus retrobulbar antibiotic injections (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.32). The fourth study which compared irrigation with balanced salt solution (BSS) alone versus BSS with antibiotics was not sufficiently powered to detect differences in endophthalmitis between groups. The risk of bias among studies was low to unclear due to information not being reported.
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Levofloxacin (Levaquin) is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial that is the L-isomer of ofloxacin. A high-dose (750 mg) short-course (5 days) of once-daily levofloxacin is approved for use in the US in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS), complicated urinary tract infections (UTI) and acute pyelonephritis (AP). The broad spectrum antibacterial profile of levofloxacin means that monotherapy is often a possibility in patients with CAP at times when other agents may require combination therapy, although levofloxacin can be used in combination therapy when necessary. The high-dose, short-course levofloxacin regimen maximizes its concentration-dependent bactericidal activity and may reduce the potential for resistance to emerge. In addition, this regimen lends itself to better compliance because of the shorter duration of treatment and the convenient once-daily administration schedule. Oral levofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and is bioequivalent to the intravenous formulation; importantly, patients can transition between the formulations, which results in more options in regards to the treatment regimen and the potential for patients with varying degrees of illness to be treated. Levofloxacin has good tissue penetration and an adequate concentration can be maintained in the urinary tract to treat uropathogens. Levofloxacin is generally well tolerated and has good efficacy in the treatment of patients with CAP, ABS, complicated UTI and AP. The efficacy and tolerability of levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 10 days in patients with CAP, ABS and UTIs is well established, and the high-dose, short-course levofloxacin regimen has been shown to be noninferior to the 10-day regimen in CAP and ABS, and to have a similar tolerability profile. Similarly, the high-dose, short-course levofloxacin regimen is noninferior to ciprofloxacin in patients with complicated UTI or AP. Thus, levofloxacin is a valuable antimicrobial agent that has activity against a wide range of bacterial pathogens; however, its use should be considered carefully so that the potential for resistance selection can be minimized and its usefulness in severe infections and against a range of penicillin- and macrolide-resistant pathogens can be maintained.
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To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 12 antimicrobials in current ophthalmic use and 4 potentially new alternatives against isolates from bacterial keratitis.
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The eradication of Helicobacter pylori not only heals peptic ulcers but also prevents their recurrence and reduces the risk of development of gastric cancer and other H. pylori-associated disorders. H. pylori eradication heals gastritis and may prevent the spread of infection, reducing the future costs required for the treatment of subsequent H. pylori-associated diseases. There are various guidelines for the management of H. pylori infection worldwide, such as the guidelines of the American College of Gastroenterology, Maastricht IV, the Second Asia-Pacific Consensus Conference, and Japan. The Japanese health insurance system approved H. pylori eradication therapy for H. pylori-related chronic gastritis in 2013. Triple therapy regimens comprising 1 proton pump inhibitor and 2 antimicrobial agents such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, or tetracycline have been widely used to eradicate this bacterium. The rate of successful eradication has declined owing to the increased rate of drug resistance stemming from the wide usage of antibiotics. This issue is of particular relevance with regard to clarithromycin. In worldwide, clarithromycin-based triple therapy should be abandoned, as it is no longer effective. Quadruple therapy and sequential therapy are reasonable alternatives for initial therapy. First-line treatment should be recommended on the basis of an understanding of the local prevalence of H. pylori antimicrobial resistance.
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Fluoroquinolones are widely used in the management of infectious diseases, and are generally safe and well tolerated. However, immediate hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic reactions, have been reported. We present here a case of anaphylactic shock in a 26-year-old man following intravenous levofloxacin administration. Skin tests confirmed an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to levofloxacin. Subsequent oral challenge tests for garenoxacin, which showed negative skin test results, confirmed that garenoxacin was well tolerated. This is the first report of tolerance to full-dose garenoxacin in a patient who developed an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to levofloxacin.