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The concentrations of clarithromycin and its active principal metabolite, 14-(R)-hydroxy-clarithromycin, were determined in lung tissue obtained during lung resection and compared with concomitant concentrations in plasma. Concentrations of the parent and metabolite were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The 15 patients studied were given 500 mg orally every 12 h for a minimum of five doses to achieve steady-state concentrations. The mean concentrations of clarithromycin and 14-(R)-hydroxy-clarithromycin in plasma just prior to the final dose were 1.38 and 0.67 micrograms/ml, respectively, and those 4 h after the final dose (at the time of lung resection) were 1.89 and 0.80 microgram/mL, respectively. The concentrations of the parent and metabolite in lung tissue at the time of lung resection averaged 54.3 and 5.12 micrograms/g, respectively, with a mean calculated ratio of concentrations of the parent to metabolite being 11.3 in lung tissue and 2.4 in plasma. Clarithromycin and its active metabolite are extensively distributed into human lung tissue.
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In isolates collected from Pakistan, SP resistance rate was elevated for macrolide. SP and HI remain susceptible to beta-lactams as well as to levofloxacin.
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Three point mutations (A2143G, A2142G, and A2142C) have been involved in Helicobacter pylori clarithromycin resistance.
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A modified sequential 3- plus 7-day regimen with thrice daily drug administration failed to achieve very high eradication rate at ITT analysis. The intensified second-line regimen achieved disappointingly low eradication rate. Novel levofloxacin-free second-line therapies are urged in Italy.
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An automated system running as a safety net can be an efficient method of detecting contraindicated drug combinations and serves an important role in the avoidance of potentially serious adverse drug events.
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Current anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment regimens are costly and because of the increasing antibiotic resistance, are becoming ineffective.
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Azithromycin and clarithromycin are erythromycin analogues that have recently been approved by the FDA. These drugs inhibit protein synthesis in susceptible organisms by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. Alteration in this binding site confers simultaneous resistance to all macrolide antibiotics. Clarithromycin is several-fold more active in vitro than erythromycin against gram-positive organisms, while azithromycin is 2- to 4-fold less potent. Azithromycin has excellent in vitro activity against H influenzae (MIC90 0.5 microgram/ml), whereas clarithromycin, although less active against H influenzae (MIC90 4.0 micrograms/ml) by standard in vitro testing, is metabolized into an active compound with twice the in vitro activity of the parent drug. Both azithromycin and clarithromycin are equivalent to standard oral therapies against respiratory tract and soft tissue infections caused by susceptible organisms, including S aureus, S pneumoniae, S pyogenes, H influenzae, and M catarrhalis. Clarithromycin is more active in vitro against the atypical respiratory pathogens (e.g., Legionella), although insufficient in vivo data are available to demonstrate a clinical difference between azithromycin and clarithromycin. Superior pharmacodynamic properties separate the new macrolides from the prototype, erythromycin. Azithromycin has a large volume of distribution, and, although serum concentrations remain low, it concentrates readily within tissues, demonstrating a tissue half-life of approximately three days. These properties allow novel dosing schemes for azithromycin, because a five-day course will provide therapeutic tissue concentrations for at least ten days. Clarithromycin has a longer serum half-life and better tissue penetration than erythromycin, allowing twice-a-day dosing for most common infections. Azithromycin pharmacokinetics permit a five-day, single daily dose regimen for respiratory tract and soft tissue infections, and a single 1 g dose of azithromycin effectively treats C trachomatis genital infections; these more convenient dosing schedules improve patient compliance. Azithromycin and clarithromycin also are active against some unexpected pathogens (e.g., B burgdorferi, T gondii, M avium complex, and M leprae). Clarithromycin, thus far, appears the most active against atypical mycobacteria, giving new hope to what has become a difficult group of infections to treat. Gastrointestinal distress, a well known and major obstacle to patient compliance with erythromycin, is relatively uncommon with the new macrolides. Further clinical data and experiences may better define and expand the role of these new macrolides in the treatment of infectious diseases.
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Multidrug resistant leprosy, defined as resistance to rifampin, dapsone and fluoroquinolones (FQ), has been described in Mycobacterium leprae. However, the in vivo impact of fluoroquinolone resistance, mainly mediated by mutations in DNA gyrase (GyrA2GyrB2), has not been precisely assessed. Our objective was to measure the impact of a DNA gyrase mutation whose implication in fluoroquinolone resistance has been previously demonstrated through biochemical studies, on the in vivo activity of 3 fluoroquinolones: ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and garenoxacin.