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In Western countries, nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae is known to cause skin and soft tissue infections (SSIs), upper respiratory tract infections, and occasionally invasive disease. Its role as a skin pathogen in returned travelers from tropical destinations where the organism is endemic is often forgotten. A retrospective analysis of a large Australian private pathology laboratory's experience with C. diphtheriae was performed to identify how frequently overseas travel was associated with C. diptheriae infection/colonization.
Streptococcus agalactiae isolates are more common among pregnant women, neonates and nonpregnant adults with underlying diseases compared to other demographic groups. In this study, we evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity in S. agalactiae strains from Rio de Janeiro (RJ) that were isolated from asymptomatic carriers. We analysed these S. agalactiae strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, as well as by determining the macrolide resistance phenotype, and detecting the presence of the ermA/B, mefA/E and lnuB genes. The serotypes Ia, II, III and V were the most prevalent serotypes observed. The 60 strains analysed were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin and levofloxacin. Resistance to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin and tetracycline was observed. Among the erythromycin and/or clindamycin resistant strains, the ermA, ermB and mefA/E genes were detected and the constitutive macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B-type resistance was the most prevalent phenotype observed. The lnuB gene was not detected in any of the strains studied. We found 56 PFGE electrophoretic profiles and only 22 of them were allocated in polymorphism patterns. This work presents data on the genetic diversity and prevalent capsular serotypes among RJ isolates. Approximately 85% of these strains came from pregnant women; therefore, these data may be helpful in developing future prophylaxis and treatment strategies for neonatal syndromes in RJ.
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Nous avons utilisé les données de laboratoire sur une période de 2 ans pour recenser les cas d’infections à C. difficile chez les patients hospitalisés et non hospitalisés. Les données ont été recueillies à partir de 3 bassins de population locaux pour les laboratoires hospitaliers ruraux de Sioux Lookout, de Mount Forest et de la South Huron Hospital Association à Exeter. Nous avons colligé les données démographiques et les renseignements spécifiques aux infections, y compris l’utilisation récente de l’antibiothérapie et les hospitalisations ou séjours en foyers de soins infirmiers récents ou en cours.
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We isolated a regional toxigenic genotype of Clostridium difficile, previously found in human infection in 4 of 200 (2%) samples of retail meats for human consumption: 1 of 67 samples of beef, 2 of 66 of pork, and 1 of 67 of poultry meat. These four isolates were positive for the tcdA and tcdB genes but negative for deletion of the tcdC and cdtB genes. All strains induced cytopathic effects in HeLa cells. However, they were susceptible to some antibiotics to which clinical isolates are often resistant. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, and rifampicin but resistant to clindamycin and ciprofloxacin. This first report of isolation of C. difficile in foodstuff from Latin America lends support to the notion that animal products serve as a reservoir for clinical strains of this pathogen in the community.
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Clindamycin phosphate (CLDMP) is effective against Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria, and is known to have anti-inflammatory properties.
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A hemoglobin-supplemented medium composed of Columbia agar base supplemented with 1% hemoglobin and 1% Polyvitex was used to investigate the in vitro activity of 29 antimicrobial agents against Capnocytophaga species. Clindamycin was the most active agent, with all strains being inhibited by 0.06 microgram/ml or less. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and imipenem were the most active among the beta-lactam antibiotics (MIC for 90% of strains tested [MIC90], 0.50 microgram/ml); other very active drugs were BMY 28142, cefpirome, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and ceftriaxone (MIC90, 0.06 to 0.50 micrograms/ml), although at least one strain showed resistance to each of these antibiotics (MIC, greater than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml). Ciprofloxacin was the most active among the quinolones, with all strains being inhibited by 0.50 microgram/ml. The MICs of the other four drugs ranged from 0.12 to 4 micrograms/ml. Ampicillin, penicillin G, ticarcillin, aztreonam, and temocillin were moderately active (MIC90, 1 to 8 micrograms/ml; MIC range, less than or equal to 0.03 to greater than 128 micrograms/ml). All strains were uniformly resistant to the aminoglycosides, polymyxin B, vancomycin, trimethoprim, and amphotericin B. Three strains produced beta-lactamase. No significant difference was found between the susceptibility of strains isolated from various sources or patients.
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The efficacy of pharmacologic doses of steroids in the treatment of septic shock was evaluated using a laboratory model. The model produced a septic insult of gradual onset followed by a rapid progression, allowing for the evaluation of postcontamination therapeutic regimens. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the cecum was ligated distal to the ileocecal valve and doubly punctured. Control animals (n = 41) received no postoperative therapy. Mortality was 37 per cent at 24 hours and 90 per cent at 48 hours. Approximately 25 animals were assigned to each of five experimental groups. Pharmacologic doses of methylprednisolone at four and eight hours postoperatively did not alter survival. Short-term gentamicin (STG) at four and eight hours improved early survival, which then declined to control values. Addition of steroid to STG had no effect. Long-term gentamicin (LTG) administered through the third postoperative day produced significant increased survival over controls throughout the study. Pharmacologic doses of steroid at four and eight hours added to LTG resulted in a significant increase (P less than 0.05) in survival rate over the treatment with LTG alone.
Forty-one clinically isolated strains of fMLS(B) S. aureus were studied. The regulatory region of the erm(A) gene, which was found to be the only molecular mechanism of fMLS(B), was sequenced. Then, beta-galactosidase assays were performed to observe their expression patterns through the nucleotide sequential alteration.
All strains of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were susceptible to Vancomycin (VCM) and Teicoplanin (TEIC). Only 0.3% of all the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were resistant to Imipenem (IPM), but 53.6% of the strains from the severe infections were resistant to IPM. On the other hand, there were few P. aeruginosa strains resistant to Meropenem (MEPM), Ceftazidime (CAZ), Ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and Pazufloxacin (PZFX), even among strains isolated from severe infections. The resistant rate of Bacteroides fragilis to Clindamycin (CLDM) was 35.9%, but there were strains resistant to IPM and Panipenem.