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Helicobacter cinaedi is an enterohepatic species. It can cause bacteremia, gastroenteritis, and cellulitis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, malignancy, or alcoholism. There are no previous reports of H. cinaedi infection in Korea. A 71-yr-old man was admitted to the emergency room because of dyspnea on November 9, 2011. He had undergone splenectomy 3 yr ago because of immune hemolytic anemia. Chest plain radiography revealed bilateral pleural effusion. He developed fever on hospital day (HD) 21. Three sets of blood cultures were taken, and gram-negative spiral bacilli were detected in all aerobic vials. The isolate grew in tiny colonies on chocolate agar after 3-day incubation under microaerophilic conditions. This organism tested positive for catalase and oxidase, and negative for urease. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this isolate exhibited 99.8% homology with the published sequence of H. cinaedi CCUG 18818(T) (GenBank accession no. ABQT01000054) and 98.5% homology with the sequence of Helicobacter bilis Hb1(T) (GenBank accession no. U18766). The patient was empirically treated with piperacillin/tazobactam and levofloxacin, and discharged with improvement on HD 31. To our knowledge, this is the first report of H. cinaedi bacteremia in an asplenic patient. Asplenia appears to be a risk factor for H. cinaedi bacteremia.
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Asian race, underlying renal disease and previous exposure to nitrofurantoin were identified as independent risk factors for high-MIC FQSEC. There may be some factors that are more common in Asians, which may result in the selection of high-MIC FQSEC. Further studies are necessary to explore these findings.
The process of bringing a drug to market involves many steps, including the preclinical stage, where various properties of the drug candidate molecule are determined. These properties, which include drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, are often displayed in a pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. While PK profiles are determined in animal models, in vitro systems that model in vivo processes are available, although each possesses shortcomings. Here, we present a 3D-printed, diffusion-based, and dynamic in vitro PK device. The device contains six flow channels, each with integrated porous membrane-based insert wells. The pores of these membranes enable drugs to freely diffuse back and forth between the flow channels and the inserts, thus enabling both loading and clearance portions of a standard PK curve to be generated. The device is designed to work with 96-well plate technology and consumes single-digit milliliter volumes to generate multiple PK profiles, simultaneously. Generation of PK profiles by use of the device was initially performed with fluorescein as a test molecule. Effects of such parameters as flow rate, loading time, volume in the insert well, and initial concentration of the test molecule were investigated. A prediction model was generated from this data, enabling the user to predict the concentration of the test molecule at any point along the PK profile within a coefficient of variation of ∼ 5%. Depletion of the analyte from the well was characterized and was determined to follow first-order rate kinetics, indicated by statistically equivalent (p > 0.05) depletion half-lives that were independent of the starting concentration. A PK curve for an approved antibiotic, levofloxacin, was generated to show utility beyond the fluorescein test molecule.
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A series of novel 7-(3-alkoxyimino-4-amino-4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)fluoroquinolone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. All of the target compounds have potent antibacterial activity against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, and exhibit good potency in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus including MRSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis including MRSE and Streptococcus pneumoniae (MICs: 0.125-4 μg/mL). Compound 22, with the best activity against Gram-positive strains, is 4-16 fold more potent than gemifloxacin, gatifloxacin and levofloxacin against Enterococcus faecalis, and 16- and 4-fold more potent than levofloxacin against S. epidermidis 09-6 and S. pneumoniae 08-4, respectively.
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The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae in the total urinary isolates from hospital-dwelling patients was smaller than that from community-dwelling patients (66.0 vs. 85.5%, P<0.001), while the proportions of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterococcus species were relatively larger (8.7%, 6.0% and 12.0% vs. 2.8%, 0.7% and 2.8%, respectively, P<0.05). The isolates from hospital-dwelling patients showed lower susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and all generations of cephalosporin (P<0.05), and a higher prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producers (41.7 vs. 5.4%, P<0.001), compared with those from community-dwelling patients. The susceptibility rates to levofloxacin were lower than 50% in both community and hospital-dwelling patients.
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Time-kill studies were performed over 24 hours using an inoculum of 5 x 10(6) - 1 x 10(7) cfu/mL. Antibiotics were tested at the 1 x MIC and 4 x MIC concentrations.
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A double-blind, noninferiority trial was conducted to establish the safety and efficacy of a once-daily, 5-day course of levofloxacin 750 mg compared to a twice-daily, 10-day course of ciprofloxacin in complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) and acute pyelonephritis (AP). This report focuses on subjects with AP.
Sequential and standard triple therapies were similarly effective at eradicating H. pylori in two-thirds of Saudi patients. Metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance to H. pylori strains was common.
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Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) may be caused by typical or atypical pathogens. The three most common zoonotic atypical pathogens are Chlamydophila psittaci (psittacosis), Francisella tularensis (tularemia), and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). Atypical CAPs are suggested by a distinctive pattern of extrapulmonary organ involvement. Zoonotic CAP may be differentiated from nonzoonotic CAP (Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionnaire's disease) by a recent zoonotic vector contact history. Zoonotic atypical CAP occurs sporadically, but not randomly, and require close association with the appropriate zoonotic vector to transmit the infection. CAP accompanied by the extrapulmonary finding of splenomegaly in a normal host limits differential diagnostic possibilities to Q fever and psittacosis. Splenomegaly does not occur with other typical or atypical CAP. Another common extrapulmonary finding occurs with some atypical pneumonias, that is, Q fever, psittacosis, and Legionnaire's disease is early mild/transient elevations of serum transaminases indicative of (hepatic) extrapulmonary organ involvement. The case presented is a middle-aged man with longstanding Crohn's disease who was further immunosuppressed by chronic prednisone therapy. The patient presented with CAP and extrapulmonary findings, that is, splenomegaly and increased serum transaminases. He denied recent contact with birds or animals. Because Crohn's disease and Q fever CAP may be accompanied by splenomegaly, the cause of his splenomegaly was a diagnostic dilemma. The patient was treated with levofloxacin. Serologic tests for atypical pathogens (Q fever, psittacosis, Legionnaire's disease, C. pneumoniae, and M. pneumoniae) were ordered. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serology for Q fever was positive with elevated acute immunoglobulin-M (phase II) titers. Re-questioning of the patient revealed a recent exposure to a neighbor's parturient cat, providing the necessary zoonotic vector contact history for Q fever. The patient responded to levofloxacin, which resulted in resolution of the patient's symptoms, right lower lobe pneumonia, and splenomegaly. Because a prior abdominal computed tomography scan indicated no splenomegaly and his splenomegaly resolved with antimicrobial therapy, the splenomegaly was related to Q fever CAP.
Emerging resistance to the current fluoroquinolones has encouraged synthesis of new compounds in this class. We have evaluated the activity of DU-6859a, a novel halogenated quinolone, against a panel of 300 bacteria, relative to the activity of ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, fleroxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, and sparfloxacin. DU-6859a was the most active of the fluoroquinolones studied and retains potentially useful activity against 80% of isolates resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration, > or = 4 micrograms/ml) to ciprofloxacin. Continued clinical investigation of DU-6859a and similar new quinolones is urged.