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A sequential regimen as first-line therapy and a 10-day levofloxacin-based triple regimen in those patients who failed to clear the infection, appear to be a valid therapeutic strategy for management of H. pylori infection in clinical practice.
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After 4-week and 8-week treatment, the pain index dropped by 3.34 +/- 2.45 and 4.06 +/- 3.03 in the trial group, and effects. 2.28 +/- 2.42 and 3.30 +/- 3.29 in the control; the voiding index dropped by 2.22 +/- 1.79 and 2.77 +/- 2.04 in the trial group, and 1.24 +/- 1.67 and 1.83 +/- 2.25 in the control respectively. There was significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment in both the two groups (P < 0.01), while the difference was not significant between 4-week and 8-week post-treatment (P > 0.05). And there was significant difference between the two groups in the pain index and voiding index (P < 0.01), but not in the white blood cell count and lipid in the EPS (P > 0.05). No serious side effects were recorded, and the tolerance to Prostate and placebo showed no significant difference.
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The effect of the active efflux system on the decrease in sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin and linezolid was studied by investigating the variation in the in vitro activity of these compounds when assayed in association with reserpine and MC 207.110. These inhibitors exhibit activity both in strains that are resistant and in strains that are susceptible to these antibiotics. However, they are seen to be most active in resistant strains, since the minimum inhibitory concentration of the antibiotics studied in these strains was reduced between 2- and 6-fold.
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Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ) was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC(50)/MBC(50)) at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ), Levofloxacin (LEV) and Ampicillin (AMP), with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI(50)) at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log(10)CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity), 0.92 (CAZ, indifference) and 0.82 (AMP, indifference), respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.
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Out-patient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major challenge in an era of increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. However, data describing the clinical impact of such resistance are scarce. A probability model was developed to estimate the impact of antimicrobial resistance on clinical outcomes for adults with CAP, eligible for out-patient care. The model assumed patients would be evaluated at 48-72 h, with those failing to improve being either hospitalized or switched to a different antibiotic. Two strategies were considered: amoxicillin followed by erythromycin (amoxicillin/erythromycin) and erythromycin followed by levofloxacin (erythromycin/levofloxacin). Analyses were conducted based on susceptibility of the major pathogens in France and the UK. Primary model-generated outcome measures were the proportion of patients successfully treated with first-line therapy and the proportion of patients subsequently hospitalized. The model estimated that in France, the amoxicillin/erythromycin strategy would lead to 67.8% improving within 48-72 h and 12.7% subsequently being hospitalized, compared with 48.6% and 13.7% for erythromycin/levofloxacin. For the UK, first-line success and hospitalization rates were, respectively, 71.7% and 8.1% for amoxicillin/erythromycin, and 65.3% and 9.3% for erythromycin/levofloxacin. The model estimated that antimicrobial resistance was responsible for >40% of hospitalizations in France and 15% in the UK. These data suggest that in areas with substantially reduced levels of susceptibility, antimicrobial resistance may be a significant contributor to subsequent hospitalization in adults initially treated as out-patients for CAP. Choice of out-patient treatment strategy should consider local resistance rates in order to maximize the likelihood of early cure, thereby minimizing hospitalizations.
Prophylactic fluoroquinolone is still effective in preventing acute bacterial prostatitis after TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. The incidence is relatively low in patients with fluoroquinolone-sensitive E. coli. However, the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli is about 13% in this population. Stool cultures for the detection of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli might be obtained before TRUS-guided prostate biopsy.
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Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication has been shown to have a prophylactic effect against gastric cancer. According to several international guidelines, the first-line therapy for treating H. pylori infection consists of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or ranitidine bismuth citrate, with any two antibiotics among amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole, given for 7-14 days. However, even with these recommended regimens, H. pylori eradication failure is still seen in more than 20% of patients. The failure rate for first-line therapy may be higher in actual clinical practice, owing to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. The recommended second-line therapy is a quadruple regimen composed of tetracycline, metronidazole, a bismuth salt and a PPI. The combination of PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin is a good option as second-line therapy. In the case of failure of second-line therapy, the patients should be evaluated using a case-by-case approach. European guidelines recommend culture before the selection of a third-line treatment based on the microbial antibiotic sensitivity. H. pylori isolates after two eradication failures are often resistant to both metronidazole and clarithromycin. The alternative candidates for third-line therapy are quinolones, tetracycline, rifabutin and furazolidone; high-dose PPI/amoxicillin therapy might also be promising.
Although ofloxacin/levofloxacin-induced rhabdomyolysis appears to be rare, patients with muscle pain, swelling, or weakness during therapy should be closely monitored for this adverse effect.
85 female SUI patients, aged 58, with the average body weight of 63 g, underwent transvaginal tape (TVT) procedure. Levofloxacin 500 mg was given to 24 of the 85 patients who underwent simultaneous hysterectomy by intravenous injection since 1 day after the operation once a day and then given orally once a day for 4-8 days when the condition was improved. And levofloxacin 500 mg was given by intravenous injection to 61 of the 85 patients who were to underwent simple TVT 30 min before the operation and then was given orally 500 mg once a day for 4 days. The clinical efficacy and side reaction were observed.
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Streptococcus agalactiae isolates are more common among pregnant women, neonates and nonpregnant adults with underlying diseases compared to other demographic groups. In this study, we evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity in S. agalactiae strains from Rio de Janeiro (RJ) that were isolated from asymptomatic carriers. We analysed these S. agalactiae strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, as well as by determining the macrolide resistance phenotype, and detecting the presence of the ermA/B, mefA/E and lnuB genes. The serotypes Ia, II, III and V were the most prevalent serotypes observed. The 60 strains analysed were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin and levofloxacin. Resistance to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin and tetracycline was observed. Among the erythromycin and/or clindamycin resistant strains, the ermA, ermB and mefA/E genes were detected and the constitutive macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B-type resistance was the most prevalent phenotype observed. The lnuB gene was not detected in any of the strains studied. We found 56 PFGE electrophoretic profiles and only 22 of them were allocated in polymorphism patterns. This work presents data on the genetic diversity and prevalent capsular serotypes among RJ isolates. Approximately 85% of these strains came from pregnant women; therefore, these data may be helpful in developing future prophylaxis and treatment strategies for neonatal syndromes in RJ.
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Approximately 4 million cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) occur in the United States each year, with the majority treated on an outpatient basis. The first fluoroquinolones (eg, ciprofloxacin) were used with caution for respiratory tract infections due to limited in vitro activity against common gram-positive pathogens. With the availability of levofloxacin, followed by gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin hydrochloride, which exhibited increased activity against gram-positive organisms, the fluoroquinolones have become a practical choice for the treatment of CAP.
We focused our attention on susceptibility profile of Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Klebsiella spp. isolated from biological specimens at the University Hospital of Salerno between June 2011 and October 2012. Acinetobacter, with a prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii (97%) presented a high range of resistance to the antimicrobials considered, excluding colistin (COL). Klebsiella spp. isolates, with a prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae (90%), presented a variable pattern of resistance [from 9·8% for COL to 50% for levofloxacin (LEV)]. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases production was detected in 15% of isolates. Most Pseudomonas isolates were P. aeruginosa with a high rate of resistance (95% to amoxicillin/clavulanate and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and <50% to the other antibiotics). Colistin remained the most effective drug tested. This study provided useful information of the local bacterial epidemiology hopefully permitting to establish a more effective empirical therapy, preventing the inappropriate use of antibacterial agents and possibly limiting the diffusion of antibacterial resistance.