An 88-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital due to a one-month history of face edema, aphagia, shortness of breath, and skin rush over almost her entire skin. She had no abdominal symptoms. Her peripheral blood count showed a white blood cell (WBC) count of 27.1x10(9)/L with 82.1% eosinophils. Serum non-specific Immunoglobulin E was within a normal range. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor was elevated to 4200U/mL. At first, her eosinophil count was so high that we suspected she had an eosinophilic leukemia or hypereosinophilic syndrome. After admission, cysts of Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis) were detected in the patient's feces by microscopic analysis, then she was diagnosed with giardiasis, and 750mg per day of metronidazole was administered for seven days. Her WBC count decreased to 6.0x10(9)/L with 10% eosinophils, and her systemic symptoms improved. At that time her serum IL-5 was within a normal range. A few months later, the patient again complained of skin rush, and G. duodenalis was once again found in her feces. Her serum IL-5 was elevated to 751pg/mL. Metronidazole was administered for two weeks, and her eosinophil count decreased. G. duodenalis is a protozoan parasite, and it is one of the most common waterborne transmission gastrointestinal parasites in the world. G. duodenalis rarely causes hypereosinophilia. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of giardiasis with extreme hypereosinophilia and severe systemic symptoms.
The incidence of Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD) was 3.2 cases per 1000 admissions or discharges and 53.8 cases per 100 000 patient days. Most cases occurred in renal and haematology patients. CDAD was more common in patients aged over 50 years and of male gender. The Indian population was under-represented. Fourteen (11.8%) isolates were A(-)B(+). All strains were susceptible to metronidazole but one strain showed intermediate resistance to vancomycin. Only 12.8% of the isolates were susceptible to clindamycin. Thirty-five isolates had PCR ribotype A, of which 29 (83%) had a clindamycin MIC >256 mg/L. Thirty-three had PCR ribotype B, of which only one (3%) had a clindamycin MIC >256 mg/L. The 14 A(-)B(+) strains were all PCR ribotype C, and had a range of MICs for clindamycin from 2 to >256 mg/L.
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Despite the use of two-week, high-dose, quadruple and culture-guided combinations of drugs, a third treatment was frequently unsuccessful. The lowest eradication rate was obtained in patients with H. pylori strains sensitive to all antibiotics; therefore, we believe that other factors could influence eradication rates. New prospective and randomized studies are needed in this subgroup of patients to find effective treatments.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis, formerly called Henoch-Schönlein purpura, is a leukocytoclastic type of vasculitis affecting small vessels with a deposition of immune IgA complexes, clinically characterized by the classic tetrad of nonthrombocytopenic palpable purpura, arthralgia (or arthritis), and gastrointestinal and renal involvement. Although the cause of the disease remains unknown, immune complexes of IgA and unidentified antigens seem to play a central pathogenic role. The diagnosis is easily established in the presence of purpura, but may be challenging in its absence, especially when colicky abdominal pain precedes the cutaneous lesions. IgA vasculitis is usually a self-limited disease with a benign course and symptomatic treatment is sufficient for most; in severe cases, however, corticosteroids are necessary. We describe the case of a young adult male presenting with severe abdominal pain, vomiting and fever (38.4ºC). Clinical examination, abdominal ultrasound and plain abdominal radiography excluded an acute abdomen. The occurrence of arthralgia involving both knees and erosive duodenitis at endoscopy, 48 hours upon admission, suggested the diagnosis of IgA vasculitis, confirmed on the following day by the presence of typical purpuric rash on the lower extremities. Corticosteroid therapy led to the resolution of all gastrointestinal and joint manifestations as well as to a significant improvement of cutaneous purpura. However, during the 3rd week of corticosteroid treatment, the patient developed watery diarrhea and the clinical suspicion of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was confirmed. The treatment with metronidazole led to the resolution of diarrhea.The peculiarity of this case resides in several aspects: the gastrointestinal and joint manifestations preceded purpura, making diagnosis more difficult; CDI is an extremely rare complication of IgA vasculitis, being, in fact, the second case reported in adults in the literature.
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Although the NCCLS has approved the agar dilution method as the test of choice for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori, a critical evaluation of this method in clinical trials to detect antibiotic resistance has not been performed. This study compares the Etest and agar dilution methods for detection of metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance in clinical isolates of H. pylori. MIC data were gathered from US-based clinical trials. The Etest was performed on Mueller-Hinton sheep blood agar plates following incubation for 4 days under 12% CO(2). The agar dilution test was performed according to the recently approved NCCLS methodology using aged sheep blood in a Mueller-Hinton agar base. Metronidazole resistance as determined by Etest was significantly higher than that determined by agar dilution (39%; 690/1768 vs. 25. 1%; 367/1465)(P<0.01). Clarithromycin resistance as determined by Etest was higher than that determined by agar dilution, but was not significantly different (12.5%; 209/1671 vs. 10.6%; 150/1414)(P>0.5). Inter-patient metronidazole resistance showed that the MIC values for identical isolates tested by both methods were equivalent in 58% (109/188). Of the 42% with a >2log(2) difference in MIC values, 17. 6% had a change in susceptibility pattern. For clarithromycin, 71.4% (237/332) of the MIC values for identical isolates tested by both methods had equivalent MIC values. Of the MIC values with a >2log(2) difference in MIC values, only 3% showed a change in susceptibility pattern. Intra-patient variability, i.e. paired isolates from the same patient, was assessed only for metronidazole. Of the 1393 paired isolates tested by Etest, 38.8% were shown to be resistant. Almost 69% of the Etest MIC determinations were deemed equivalent and 16.7% had a change in susceptibility pattern. Of the 639 paired isolates tested by agar dilution, 23.9% were resistant to metronidazole. Almost 72% of the agar dilution MIC values were equivalent and 11.3% of the determinations had a change in susceptibility pattern. Clarithromycin resistance rates are similar, when determined by either test method. The Etest yields a significantly higher prevalence of metronidazole resistance among H. pylori compared with the agar dilution method and both methods yield discordant results, when isolates from different parts of the same stomach are compared. Neither method is reliable in determining metronidazole resistance in H. pylori.
Adding saccharomyces boulardii to antibiotics in the treatment of acute amebiasis seems to decrease the duration of clinical symptoms and cyst passage.
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Two hundred and seventy-seven adults aged 35-54 years with H. pylori infection in three villages were assigned to two groups: treatment (n=189 in two villages) and placebo (n=88 in one village). Participants received either a 10-day oral quadruple therapy regimen with omeprazole (20 mg, twice daily); tetracycline (750 mg, three times daily); metronidazole (500 mg, three times daily) and bismuth potassium citrate (300 mg, twice daily), or a similar lookalike placebo regimen. The status of H. pylori infection in each trial participant before and after six weeks of treatment was determined by a 13C-urea breath test.
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Although the nimB gene may be implicated in the high-level metronidazole resistance in 2 F. magna strains, the alarmingly high prevalence of the nimB gene in anaerobic Gram-positive cocci cannot be directly associated with resistance and the possibility of a silent nimB gene should be considered.
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The aim of this study was to confirm a presumptive qualification of clinical B. fragilis group strains isolated in Płock as ESBL-positive strains and to determine some properties of these strains. Twenty four clinical strains belonging to the B. fragilis group, isolated first of all from surgical patients, were received for testing. Identification of strains was performed in the automatic ATB Expression system (bioMerieux sa, France) using biochemical API 20 A strips. Strains were tested for the production of catalase (ID Color Catalase test, bioMerieux sa) and beta-lactamase (Cefinase, BBL, Becton Dickinson, USA). Susceptibility of strains to four antimicrobial agents: clindamycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and imipenem was determined by Etest (AB Biodisk, Sweden). ESBLs were detected with the use of two disc diffusion methods: the double-disc synergy test (DDST) according to Jarlier et al. and the diagnostic disc (DD) test according to Appleton. Seventeen of examined strains belonged to the species Bacteroides fragilis, three--to B. ovatus/thetaiotaomicron, two--to B. distasonis, one--to B. uniformis and one--to B. stercoris/eggerthii. One strain (B. uniformis) did not produce catalase, whereas all strains produced beta-lactamases. Examined strains were susceptible in vitro to metronidazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and imipenem. One clindamycin-resistant strain was detected (B. fragilis). Occurrence of ESBL-type enzymes was confirmed in 22 strains of following species: B. fragilis (17 strains), B. ovatus/thetaiotaomicron (3), B. distasonis (1) and B. uniformis (1). Clinical strains of the B. fragilis group with a new mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics appeared during last years in Poland. They produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), so they are resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins and monobactams. Monitoring of infections caused by these threatening strains in hospital patients is very important.