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Rosacea is a common, often overlooked, chronic facial dermatosis characterized by intermittent periods of exacerbation and remission. Clinical subtypes and grading of the disease have been defined in the literature. On the basis of a genetic predisposition, there are several intrinsic and extrinsic factors possibly correlating with the phenotypic expression of the disease. Although rosacea cannot be cured, there are several recommended treatment strategies appropriate to control the corresponding symptoms/signs. In addition to adequate skin care, these include topical and systemic medications particularly suitable for the papulopustular subtype of rosacea with moderate to severe intensity. The most commonly used and most established therapeutic regimens are topical metronidazole and topical azelaic acid as well as oral doxycycline. Conventionally, 100-200 mg per day have been used. Today also a controlled release formulation is available, delivering 40 mg per day using non-antibiotic, anti-inflammatory activities of the drug. Anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline in particular allows for a safe and effective short- and long-term therapy of rosacea. Topical metronidazole and topical azelaic acid also appear to be safe and effective for short-term use. There are indications that a combined therapy of anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline and topical metronidazole could possibly have synergy effects. Further interesting therapy options for the short- and long-term therapy of rosacea could be low-dose minocycline and isotretinoin; however, too little data are available with regard to the effectiveness, safety, optimal dosage and appropriate length of treatment for these medications to draw final conclusions.
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We enrolled 44 patients in the levofloxacin-based regimen and 46 patients in the quadruple therapy. The former was successful in 31 of 44 (70%; 95% confidence interval: 53-87) and the latter in 17 of 46 (37%; 95% confidence interval: 23-47) patients, using intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis (P < .001). The rates of H pylori resistance to metronidazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin were 46%, 12%, and 0%, respectively. Resistance to both metronidazole and clarithromycin was found in 10% of cases.
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Determination of the microflora present on the tongue dorsum of subjects with and without halitosis using conventional microbiological culture methods.
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Wasting, diarrhoea and mortality in wild juvenile Australian king parrots were associated with Spironucleus-like protozoa in the intestine. Acorns were not considered to be the cause of the syndrome.
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(1) The rates of intra-amniotic inflammation and intra-amniotic inflammation/infection in patients who received regimen 2 decreased during treatment from 68.8% to 52.1% and from 75% to 54.2%, respectively. In contrast, in patients who received regimen 1, the frequency of intra-amniotic inflammation and infection/inflammation increased during treatment (31.7% to 55% and 34.1% to 58.5%, respectively); and (2) intra-amniotic inflammation/infection was eradicated in 33.3% of patients who received regimen 2, but in none who received regimen 1.
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Albumin level <2.5g/l and intensive care unit stay were predictors of failure of metronidazole therapy for C. difficile-associated diarrhea. These patients may benefit from oral vancomycin therapy at outset.
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Indications for H. pylori treatment as well as treatment regimens vary.
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Encephalopathy associated with metronidazole is rare and, in most cases, reversible following discontinuation.
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We present a review of 41 cases of severe acute pancreatitis with pancreatic necrosis. This study was based on the use of closed surgery technique with continuous irrigation and rescheduled relaparatomies. The study was divided into two stages: the first one with 20 patients with no work protocol and the second one with 21 patients with a "strict protocol". The post-surgical morbility and the mortality were evaluated. There were 21 male patients and 20 female patients. The predominant etiology was the related to the biliary tract. The Ranson and APACHE II criteria had no predictive value for mortality, which showed a decreased rate during the second stage of the study. Furthermore, the protocol used in the two stages and the surgical technique used on the 41 patients have been described, as well as the severity of pancreatitis and the surgical indications in each case. We conclude that a "strict protocol" of pre-operative management and puncture with a pre-operative fine needle -in combination with the surgical technique proposed- significantly decreases the mortality due to severe acute pancreatitis.
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Consensus on the optimal treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is rapidly changing. Treatment with metronidazole has been associated with increased clinical failure rates; however, the reasons for this are unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess age-related treatment response rates in hospitalized patients with CDI treated with metronidazole. This was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study of hospitalized patients with CDI. Patients were assessed for refractory CDI, defined as persistent diarrhea after 7 days of metronidazole therapy, and stratified by age and clinical characteristics. A total of 242 individuals, aged 60 ± 18 years (Charlson comorbidity index, 3.8 ± 2.4; Horn's index, 1.7 ± 1.0) were included. One hundred twenty-eight patients (53%) had severe CDI. Seventy patients (29%) had refractory CDI, a percentage that increased from 22% to 28% and to 37% for patients aged less than 50 years, for patients from 50 to 70 years, and for patients aged >70 years, respectively (P = 0.05). In multivariate analysis, Horn's index (odds ratio [OR], 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50 to 2.77; P < 0.001), severe CDI (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.15 to 4.41; P = 0.018), and continued use of antibiotics (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.30 to 5.39; P = 0.0072) were identified as significant predictors of refractory CDI. Age was not identified as an independent risk factor for refractory CDI. Therefore, hospitalized elderly patients with CDI treated with metronidazole had increased refractory CDI rates likely due to increased underlying severity of illness, severity of CDI, and concomitant antibiotic use. These results may help identify patients that may benefit from alternative C. difficile treatments other than metronidazole.
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PCR testing is a viable option for small community hospitals, providing accurate and timely results for patient management and infection control. This can potentially lead to improved outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and significant hospital cost savings.