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The interaction of cytochrome c with nitromedicines, such as 5-nitrofural, 5-nitroxoline, metronidazole and sodium nitrite which enables the generation of nitric oxide or nitrosyl complexes in the presence of ascorbic acid or sodium ascorbate in acid medium has been investigated. The pharmaceutical compositions containing cytochrome c and nitromedicine complexes as active substances were studied in the experiments by using rats. It has been shown that positive local and systemic effects were estimated when NO-containing gel was used at burn treatment. These positive effects at the local level are due to a sufficient microcirculation index which indicates intensification of the blood flow in the microvessels in the injured area. These effects at the systemic level provide maintenance of the general heart rhythm and gradual recovery of the vegetative balance which is not observed in the animals of the control group.
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In the Nephrology Unit, 48 episodes of Clostridium difficile diarrhea occurred in 35 patients (7 cases per 100 discharges/year). This figure is higher than the global incidence in the hospital (0.53 cases per 100 discharges/year, p < 0.001). The mean age of the 33 patients with renal diseases was 63 years old and 17 of them were female. Their main diagnoses were chronic renal failure in hemodialysis in 48%, uremic syndrome in 36% and renal transplant in 6%. Seventy nine percent had a history of antimicrobial use (42% quinolones and 36% cephalosporins). In 3 patients, the only risk factor was chronic renal failure. Seventy five percent responded to metronidazole and in 27%, diarrhea recidivated, compared with a 6% recurrence rate in other units, p < 0.02). Eight patients died during hospital stay.
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A Fifteen years girl belonging to a low socioeconomic status was admitted with peritonsillar abscess caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), high fever, diarrhoea and septicaemic shock. Initial blood cultures and widal test, stool cultures and routine stool examination were non-contributory to the diagnosis. A bone marrow culture in the second week confirmed the diagnosis of Salmonella typhi infection. Examination of a fresh stool sample showed cysts of Entamoeba histolytica. She was treated with ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, augmentin and ceftriaxone. She had no clinical evidence of immunosuppression prior to this episode and her HIV test was negative. This case report highlights the presence of community acquired MRSA infection causing perititonsillar abscess, and the diagnostic dilemma of fever and diarrhoea due to coinfection with Salmonella typhi and Entamobea histolytica.
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Eradication rates by intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses in the 10MEA and 14EMBT groups were 71.9% and 82.6%, and 71.7% and 90.5% (p = .973 and .321), respectively. The 10MEA group was significantly superior to the 14EMBT group in terms of side-effect rates (12.2% vs. 39.6%, p = .001), and discontinuation rates due to side-effects were lower in the 10MEA group than in the 14EMBT group (0.7% vs. 13.2%, p < .001). Moreover, compliance was higher in the 10MEA group (94.2% (131/139)) than in the 14EBMT group (83.0% (44/53)) (p = .014).
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Of 450 samples studied, 8 samples (1.77%) were contaminated with H. pylori. Brand C of bottled mineral water had the highest prevalence of H. pylori (3.63%). The bottled mineral water samples of July month had the highest levels of H. pylori-contamination (50%). H. pylori strains had the highest levels of resistance against metronidazole (62.5%), erythromycin (62.5%), clarithromycin (62.5%), amoxicillin (62.5%) and trimethoprim (62.5%). Totally, 12.5% of strains were resistant to more than 6 antibiotics. VvacAs1a (100%), vacAm1a (87.5%), cagA (62.5%), iceA1 (62.5%), oipA (25%), babA2 (25%) and cagE (37.5%) were the most commonly detected genotypes. M1as1a (62.5%), m1as2 (37.5%), m2s2 (37.5%) and S1a/cagA+/IceA2/oipA-/babA2-/cagE- (50%) were the most commonly detected combined genotypes.
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Infectious diarrhea is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and a common complaint in clinical practice. Routine empirical use of antibiotics for infectious diarrhea should be avoided because of the self-limited nature of most cases, the cost of antibiotics, and the potential to worsen the already significant problem of antibiotic resistance of enteric pathogens. For patients with severe invasive or prolonged diarrhea or who are at high risk of complications, such as the elderly, diabetics, cirrhotics, and immunocompromised patients, empirical treatment with a quinolone antibiotic for 3 to 5 days can be considered. Antibiotic treatment can be highly effective for Shigella, ETEC, and V. cholerae infections, and metronidazole is indicated for C. difficile colitis. The impact of antibiotics for other specific pathogens is modest, and antibiotic therapy should be reserved for the same group of patients who would be considered for empirical treatment. The most significant problem in the antibiotic treatment of infectious diarrhea is the progressive increase in resistance among enteric pathogens; only the prudent use of antimicrobials in all areas of daily practice can limit or delay the impact of this serious problem.
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Three 6-month-old beagles each carrying 9 premolars with double root canals were randomly assigned to the PRP group, blood clot group, or negative control group. All experimental teeth suffered apical periodontitis, and RET was performed. In the blood clot group, bleeding was induced from the periapical tissues to fill the canal space. In the PRP group, autologous PRP was injected into each root canal. The animals were sacrificed 3 months later. Histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Statistical analysis was performed by the Fisher exact test, with the significance set at 0.05.
Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen that causes gastroenteritis, as well as other disease states such as meningitis and septic arthritis. In this study, the Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) results were compared to a reference agar dilution method using gatifloxacin, a new 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone. A total of 53 strains of C. jejuni initially isolated from patients in California and Mexico were tested. Results demonstrated a high correlation (r = 0.88) between the two utilized in vitro dilution methods. In addition, gatifloxacin activity was compared to that of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole using the Etest. Gatifloxacin (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml) was approximately eight- to 16-fold more potent than ciprofloxacin (Mic90, > 32 micrograms/ml), a commonly used fluoroquinolone for Campylobacter infections. Eight strains highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC90, > 32 micrograms/ml) were tested for cross resistance against the newer fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) and the rank order of potency was: gatifloxacin (MIC50, 16 micrograms/ml) > trovafloxacin = levofloxacin (MIC50, > 32 micrograms/mL). However, only 25% ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were inhibited by < or = 1 microgram/mL of gatifloxacin or trovafloxacin. These results for gatifloxacin against C. jejuni strains must be further assessed in the context of in vivo trials before the clinical role of this new fluoroquinolone can be determined. The Etest appears to be a simple and precise susceptibility test method for testing C. jejuni isolates against fluoroquinolones and other alternative therapeutic agents.
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A retrospective analysis of hospital databases.
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Available English-language data from reviews, abstracts, presentations, and clinical trials of the treatment of HE in humans were reviewed; relevant clinical data were selected and included.
Recent years have witnessed a decrease in the rate of Helicobacter pylori eradication due to antimicrobial resistance, clarithromycin or metronidazole resistance in particular. As one of the alternatives to the standard regimens, levofloxacin-containing therapy has been considered a promising regimen. Nevertheless, there is a little information concerning the prevalence of levofloxacin resistance and this resistance mechanism.