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The in vitro activity of R-3746, an iminomethoxy aminothiazolyl cephalosporin with a CH2OCH3 moiety at position 3, was compared with those of other antibiotics. R-3746 inhibited the majority of hemolytic streptococci (groups A, B, C, F, and G) and Streptococcus pneumoniae at less than 0.06 micrograms/ml, which was comparable to the activity of amoxicillin, 2- to 8-fold more active than cefixime, and 16- to 64-fold more active than cefaclor and cephalexin. Ninety percent of beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were inhibited at a concentration 0.25 micrograms/ml, but it was less active against Branhamella spp. It did not inhibit (MIC, greater than 16 micrograms/ml) enterococci, viridans group streptococci, or methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The MICs of R-3746 for 90% of strains tested for Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Citrobacter diversus; Proteus mirabilis; and Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia spp. were less than or equal to 1 micrograms/ml. It was two- to eightfold less active than cefixime but was markedly superior to cefaclor, cephalexin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. R-3746 inhibited 50% of Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, Morganella spp., Providencia spp., Proteus vulgaris, and Serratia marcescens at less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml. Pseudomonas spp. were resistant. Fifty percent of Clostridium spp. were inhibited by 0.5 micrograms/ml, but MICs for Bacteroides spp. were greater than 128 micrograms/ml. R-3746 was not appreciably hydrolyzed by most chromosomal and plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases.
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The susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria remains stable in Belgium, except for clindamycin, which shows a continuous decrease in activity. However, for each of the tested antibiotics, at least a few resistant organisms were detected. Consequently, for severe infections involving anaerobic bacteria, it could be advisable to perform microbiological testing instead of relying on known susceptibility profiles. Periodically monitoring background susceptibility remains necessary to guide empirical therapy.
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This study evaluated the need for antibiotic prophylaxis in orthognathic surgery.
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Antibiotics to treat endodontic infections are routinely prescribed based on previously published susceptibility tests. There is increased concern that bacteria have increased resistance to the currently recommended antibiotics. The purpose of this investigation was to perform antibiotic susceptibility tests on a panel of bacteria recently isolated from endodontic infections. The bacteria in this study were aseptically aspirated with a needle from endodontic abscesses, cultivated, and identified at the species level. Each of the 98 species of bacteria was tested for antibiotic susceptibility to a panel of six antibiotics using the Etest. The antibiotics were penicillin V, amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, clindamycin, metronidazole, and clarithromycin. The percentages of susceptibility for the 98 species were penicillin V: 83/98 (85%), amoxicillin: 89/98 (91%), amoxicillin + clavulanic acid: 98/98 (100%), clindamycin: 94/98 (96%), and metronidazole: 44/98 (45%). Metronidazole had the greatest amount of bacterial resistance; however, if it is used in combination with penicillin V or amoxicillin, susceptibility of the combination with penicillin V or amoxicillin increased to 93% and 99%, respectively. Clarithromycin seems to have efficacy, but it is still considered an antibiotic under investigation because the minimum inhibitory concentration has not been established.
The four phenotypically different E. coli isolates were classified into four clones and two phylogenetic groups (B2 and A), and displayed different virulence gene patterns. The two isolates resistant to co-amoxiclav were phylogenetically and clonally different, and harboured two different bla(TEM) genes.
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The results and predictions were consistent with the knowledge in this field. The model may be useful to optimize clinical trial designs and drug dosing regimens.
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Two controlled clinical trials compared loracarbef (LY163892 with amoxicillin/clavulanate or amoxicillin in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Collectively, of 1,057 patients enrolled, 390 qualified for analysis: group 1 comprised 200 patients treated with loracarbef (400 mg twice daily); group 2, 120 patients treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate (500 mg three times daily); and group 3, 70 patients treated with amoxicillin (500 mg three times daily). Symptomatic and bacteriologic outcomes were assessed at post-therapy (within 72 hours of therapy completion), and at late-posttherapy (10-14 days after therapy completion). These evaluations were combined to provide an "overall" evaluation that accounted for all unfavorable outcomes occurring at either the posttherapy or late-posttherapy visit. At the posttherapy evaluation, 93.0% of group 1 patients, 95.0% of group 2 patients, and 88.6% of group 3 patients demonstrated favorable clinical outcomes (cure or improvement). "Overall" favorable clinical outcomes were achieved in 88.0% of group 1 patients, 90.0% of group 2 patients, and 81.4% of group 3 patients. Bacteriologic results from the two studies could not be merged due to marked differences in how posttherapy bacteriologic results were assessed. The clinical significance of positive posttherapy sputum cultures was doubtful: 90% of patients with a positive sputum culture at the posttherapy visit who returned for the late-posttherapy visit had successful clinical outcomes documented at the late-posttherapy evaluation. Loracarbef was associated with a lower incidence of diarrhea and a higher incidence of headache as compared with amoxicillin/clavulanate. These results suggest that 400 mg loracarbef twice daily for 7 days is effective and safe in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.
In a taste test of 4 antimicrobial agents, azithromycin (cherry flavored), cefprozil (bubble gum flavored), cefixime (strawberry flavored), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (banana flavored) were compared.