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In uncomplicated PID, once daily moxifloxacin monotherapy was clinically and bacteriologically as efficacious as twice daily ofloxacin plus metronidazole therapy and was associated with fewer drug related adverse events.
Blastocystis spp. are among the most frequently observed intestinal parasites in humans. Despite the discovery of Blastocystis approximately 100 years ago, limited information is available regarding its pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and available treatment options. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with Blastocystis sp. infections diagnosed at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain).
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The patients all belonged to a black and poor population (mean age: 60 years). Diabetes was present in 11% of the patients. In ten patients, no aetiology was found. The other 34 cases were secondary mainly to urogenital pathology (50%). In 50% of the cases, the lesions were localised on the external genitalia, in the other 50%, the lesions had spread to the hypogastrium and/or the perineum. Medical treatment included intensive care and triple antibiotic therapy, penicillin, gentamycin and metronidazole. A hyperbaric oxygen therapy was associated in 25% of the cases. The surgical treatment in the acute period included incising, debridement, paring, draining, urinary derivation (n = 36), and colostomy (n = 5). Thirteen patients had the benefit of sequential and prospective bacteriological tests.
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Duration of cytotoxin production by C. difficile ribotype 027 markedly exceeds that of ribotype 001. Sub-optimal gut concentrations of metronidazole, possibly due to inactivation by components of normal gut flora, are associated with continued toxin production. These findings may help to explain the increased severity of symptoms and higher case-fatality ratio associated with infections due to C. difficile ribotype 027.
Antimicrobial susceptibility of 120 Helicobacter pylori isolates to metronidazole, tetracycline, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin was determined, and 77.5, 15, 10, and 6.6% of the isolates, respectively, were resistant. Only rdxA inactivation and both rdxA and frxA inactivation were responsible for metronidazole resistance in 66% (8 of 12) and 33% (4 of 12) of the isolates, respectively.
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REP3123 is a fully synthetic methionyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor in pre-clinical development as a novel agent to treat Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). This novel agent was investigated for its ability to block the production of toxins and spores, and was tested for efficacy in vivo in a hamster model.
A university hospital, the largest centre for management of HIV-associated complications in Taiwan.
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with its vast prevalence is responsible for various gastric diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric malignancy. While effective, current treatment regimens are challenged by a fast-declining eradication rate due to the increasing emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori. In this study, we developed a liposomal nanoformulation of linolenic acid (LipoLLA) and evaluated its bactericidal activity against resistant strains of H. pylori. Using a laboratory strain of H. pylori, we found that LipoLLA was effective in killing both spiral and coccoid forms of the bacteria via disrupting bacterial membranes. Using a metronidazole-resistant strain of H. pylori and seven clinically isolated strains, we further demonstrated that LipoLLA eradicated all strains of the bacteria regardless of their antibiotic resistance status. Furthermore, under our experimental conditions, the bacteria did not develop drug resistance when cultured with LipoLLA at various sub-bactericidal concentrations, whereas they rapidly acquired resistance to both metronidazole and free linolenic acid (LLA). Our findings suggest that LipoLLA is a promising antibacterial nanotherapeutic to treat antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infection.
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11 trials that included 1463 participants were identified. Three trials compared metronidazole with vancomycin; 8 compared metronidazole or vancomycin with another agent, combined agents, or placebo. Strain was analyzed in 1 trial and 2 cohort studies. No study comparing 2 antimicrobial agents demonstrated a statistically significant difference for initial cure; all comparisons were of low to moderate strength of evidence. Moderate-strength evidence from 1 study demonstrated that recurrence was decreased with fidaxomicin versus vancomycin (15% vs. 25%; difference, -10 percentage points [95% CI, -17 to -3 percentage points]; P=0.005). Subgroup analysis of a single study comparing metronidazole with vancomycin for patients who have severe C. difficile infection showed no difference by intention-to-treat analysis; this was rated as insufficient-strength evidence. Harms, when reported, did not differ between treatments in any study.
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MSD Sharp & Dohme GmbH, Haar, Germany.