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Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from stool samples of 100 children. The isolates were identified based on biochemical characteristics and DNA profiles obtained from polymerase chain reaction with genus- and species-specific primers. Resistance to sulphamethoxazole, streptomycin, compound sulphonamides, chloramphenicol and vancomycin was tested using the paper-disk method.
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Toxoplasmic encephalitis in HIV-infected persons varies by geographic area in the United States. TMP-SMX reduces the risk for toxoplasmic encephalitis.
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During the 10-year period 1976-1985, a total of 154 cases of blood dyscrasia were reported in Sweden which were evaluated as having a probable or possible causal relationship with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (T-SM). There were 61 cases of leucopenia (of which 16 had agranulocytosis), 28 cases of thrombocytopenia, and two of non-haemolytic anaemia. There were also 32 cases of bicytopenia and 31 cases of tricytopenia. The median age varied from 38 years in the leucopenia group to 81 years in those with tricytopenia. The overall fatality rate was 17%, ranging from 2% in the group with mild leucopenia to 52% in the group with tricytopenia. In relation to sales and prescription data, the overall incidence of reported T-SM blood dyscrasias was 5.3 per million defined daily doses, and among out-patients the incidence was one case per 18,000 prescriptions. Thus the overall incidence of any blood reaction to T-SM appears to be low. In relation to prescription data, elderly people were overrepresented among the serious reactions.
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For patients transplanted at our center between January 1997 and January 2007, we recorded all documented PCP infections by review of our liver transplant database and hospital-based electronic medical records system, both of which record all infections and culture results.
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The risk of recurrent NTS bacteremia is low in HIV-infected patients who achieve short-term virological response to cART, regardless of secondary prophylaxis.
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A patient had several episodes of D-lactic acidosis after receiving oral antibiotics. Stool cultures yielded Lactobacillus acidophilus resistant to the implicated agents. Provocative challenge with dietary carbohydrate alone, in the absence of antibiotics, failed to reproduce the syndrome.
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We evaluated 85 labels after excluding 11 ibuprofen prescriptions that were filled with over-the-counter containers that lacked labels printed at the pharmacy. The pharmacy name or logo was the most prominent item on 71 (84%) of the labels, with a mean font size of 13.6 point. Font sizes were smaller for medication instructions (9.3 point), medication name (8.9 point), and warning and instruction stickers (6.5 point). Color, boldfacing, and highlighting were most often used to identify the pharmacy and items most useful to pharmacists. While the content of the main label was generally consistent, there was substantial variability in the content of instruction and warning stickers from different pharmacies, and independent pharmacies were less likely to use such stickers (P < .001). None of the ibuprofen containers were delivered with Food and Drug Administration-approved medication guides, as required by law.
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Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare drug-induced life-threatening disease. Currently, the disease is only treated by supportive and antiseptic measures. Quite recently intravenous immunoglobulins (IG) were shown to be a promising TEN treatment. The rationale for their use is based on the fact that keratinocyte apoptosis in TEN involves the CD95 (APO-1/Fas) cell surface receptor-ligand system. We successfully treated a TEN patient with high dose of intravenous IG. The clinical recovery appeared exceptionally rapid. Immunohistochemistry showed that the IG action probably developed on the CD95 receptor-ligand system at the keratinocytes surface.
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A standard protocol for perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in radical retropubic prostatectomy has not been established until now. The present pilot study compared the perioperative single-dose of piperacillin/tazobactam to the administration of ciprofloxacin or cotrimoxazol for 5 days with regard to postoperative infections. For the first time these antibiotic regimes were described in radical retropubic prostatectomy.
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The outcomes of alternative strategies for the management of pulmonary complications in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with suspected Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were compared using a decision analysis model. A decision tree was constructed using baseline probabilities derived from published data and expert opinion. The case scenario analyzed was that of a patient not currently receiving anti-Pneumocystis prophylaxis who presents with moderate pulmonary symptoms and fulfills the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria for presumptive P. carinii pneumonia. Two strategies were compared: (1) early bronchoscopy with appropriate therapy based on the results, and (2) empiric treatment for P. carinii (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or pentamidine, and steroids) with delayed bronchoscopy in those not responding to 5 days of empiric therapy. The expected 1-month survival rate (with and without quality of life adjustment) was found to be essentially the same for the two strategies using the baseline probabilities, and the decision remained a toss-up within the clinically relevant range of published probabilities for P. carinii pneumonia in patients fulfilling the CDC criteria. Because early bronchoscopy does not offer any additional survival benefits and is associated with greater costs and disutility, empiric therapy would appear to be the superior management strategy in this scenario.