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We did a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in children aged 1-14 years with clinical features of HIV infection in Zambia. Primary outcomes were mortality and adverse events possibly related to treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat.
In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: benzyl alcohol, dimeticone, herbal and essential oils, insecticide combinations, isopropyl myristate, ivermectin, lindane, malathion, mechanical removal by combing ("bug busting"), oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole, TMP-SMX), permethrin, phenothrin, pyrethrum, and spinosad.
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A study was conducted in new patients registered with tuberculosis (TB) in a rural district of Malawi in order to 1) verify the acceptability of voluntary counselling and testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; 2) describe sexual behaviour and condom use; and 3) identify socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors associated with 'no condom use'.
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In these sub-Saharan African adults, HAART initiation reduced ODs and mortality beyond that which was expected through the HAART-induced CD4+ T-cell increase. Further studies should examine practical implications of this independent 'HAART effect' on clinical outcomes in patients on HAART.
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One hundred twenty-three patients with nonpulmonary infections due to Mycobacterium fortuitum or Mycobacterium chelonei were treated by wound debridement and with chemotherapy on the basis of in vitro susceptibilities of the organism. Of 76 patients with infections caused by M. fortuitum, 13 required no therapy or were adequately treated with surgery alone. Patients with active localized disease received single drug therapy (usually with a sulfonamide) for a mean period of 10.6 weeks for cellulitis and seven months for osteomyelitis. Patients with extensive disease received amikacin or amikacin plus cefoxitin (mean, four weeks) followed by a sulfonamide (mean, six months). The 47 patients with infections caused by M. chelonei received no therapy or were treated with surgery alone (6); with amikacin (10), erythromycin (6), doxycycline (3), or cefoxitin (1); or with amikacin plus cefoxitin followed by cefoxitin alone for a total of 10-12 weeks (20); or other multiple-drug regimens (1). Surgery was performed on 74 (60%) patients. Schlichter tests or serum drug levels were determined for 81 (66%) patients. Response to therapy was excellent; 68 (90%) infections with M. fortuitum and 34 (72%) with M. chelonei were successfully treated. Cultures became negative within six weeks of chemotherapy, except for sternal osteomyelitis, for which cultures were not negative until up to 14 weeks. Follow-up for a mean period of 12 months following therapy was possible in 80% of cases. Relapses were rare except in patients with disseminated disease, and drug resistance developed in only one patient. These studies demonstrate the value of routine susceptibility testing of these mycobacterial species and the benefit of chemotherapy on the basis of in vitro susceptibilities.
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To determine whether the addition of a single dose of ceftriaxone sodium to a 10-day course of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole hastens urine sterilization or resolution of clinical symptoms in febrile children with urinary tract infections.
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A patient who returned from a 3-year stay in Thailand and India one year ago, was admitted with fever of 38.5 degrees C and productive cough for the last four weeks. He remembered wounding his foot three years ago in India with contamination by soil. Subsequently, recurrent pustulae appeared on his feet. One such pustule was found on admittance. The clinical examination showed low body weight, without further abnormalities.
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Pneumonia due to Pneumocystis carinii is an infrequent complication following autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) which is associated with a high mortality. Although administration of trimethoprim/sulfa- methoxazole (TMP/SMX) is an effective prophylactic strategy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), treatment-associated toxicity frequently results in discontinuation of therapy. We have conducted a prospective randomized trial comparing atovaquone, a new anti-Pneumocystis agent, with TMP/SMX for PCP prophylaxis following autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation. Thirty-nine patients were studied. Twenty patients received atovaquone suspension and 19 patients received TMP/SMX. The median ages were 44 (range 20-68) and 47 (range 32-63) years, respectively. A similar number of patients with solid tumors (14 vs 15) and hematologic malignancies (five vs five) were treated in each group. Either TMP/SMX (160/800 mg) or atovaquone (1500 mg) was administered daily from transplant day -5 until day -1, discontinued from day 0 to engraftment, then resumed 3 days per week until day +100 post-transplant. The median time to engraftment (ANC >0.5 x 109/l) was similar in both groups. Eighty percent of the patients randomized to atovaquone prophylaxis completed the study. Four atovaquone-treated patients were removed from study; two patients (10%) did not receive a transplant and two patients (10%) were removed due to a protocol violation. None of the 16 patients treated with atovaquone experienced treatment-associated adverse effects. Of the 19 patients randomized to receive TMP/SMX, 55% completed the study. Nine TMP/SMX-treated patients were removed from the study; one patient (5%) did not receive a transplant and eight patients (40%) were removed due to drug intolerance (P < 0.003). The rate of intolerance to TMP/SMX led to the early discontinuation of this randomized trial. Intolerance of TMP/SMX included elevated transaminase levels (n = 1), nausea or vomiting (n = 3), thrombocytopenia (n = 2) and neutropenia (n = 2). All episodes of TMP/SMP intolerance occurred following transplantation after a median duration of 17.5 (range 2-48) days and a median of 7 (range 1-20) doses. Resolution of adverse side-effects occurred in all eight patients within a median of 7 (range 2-20) days following discontinuation of therapy. Neither PCP nor bacterial infections were identified in any of the patients treated. This prospective randomized study demonstrated that atovaquone is well-tolerated for anti-Pneumocystis prophylaxis in autologous PBSC transplant patients intolerant of TMP/SMX.
Mycobacterium fortuitum is one of the rapidly growing mycobacteria found in soil, dust, and water. It can be isolated as a normal colonizing organism, but as a pathogen this organism causes mainly skin and soft tissue infection preceded by trauma. A wide variety of infections can occur in individuals with predisposing conditions. Central nervous system infection with M fortuitum is rare, and meningitis occurs after surgery or trauma. We believe that ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infection with this organism has not been reported in the literature. Practitioners should be aware of this rare entity and should suspect it in the presence of cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis with sterile culture, and after trauma, surgery, or manipulation of the VP shunt hardware. Mycobacterium fortuitum is resistant to most first-line and second-line antituberculous drugs, and treatment should include surgical debridement in addition to prolonged antimicrobial therapy.