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To assess whether rectal preparation before transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy could decrease the rate of infectious complications and to find any possible risk factors affecting the development of complications.
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In order to provide additional data on the in vitro antibacterial activity of cefetamet-pivoxil against respiratory pathogens, we determined the bactericidal kinetics of this antibiotic in comparison to cefixime and ceftibuten against H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, K. pneumoniae, E. coli, S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes. time-kill studies were performed by using concentrations equal to a x MIC, and 4 x MIC of the antibiotics tested and different inocula (10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) CFU/ml). The strains were incubated in a shaking incubator at 37 degrees C and 1 ml samples were removed at regular intervals for viable count determination. The antibiotics were eliminated by serial ten-fold dilutions in physiological saline before plating. At 4 x MIC of cefetamet and at 10(5) CFU/ml inoculum the results were 99.9% killing or more of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis at 4 h, and of E. coli and K. pneumoniae within 4 to 6 h, and of E. coli and K. pneumoniae within 4 to 6 h. At the same concentration of MIC and with the same inoculum a 99.9% reduction was achieved against S. pneumoniae within 4 h and against S. pyogenes within 2 h with no regrowth at 24 h in both cases. Similar results were obtained using 10(7) and 10(9) CFU/ml inocula. Cefetamet had efficient killing activity even at lower concentrations. Bactericidal kinetics of cefetamet favorably compare with those of cefixime and ceftibuten. The efficient bactericidal activity of cefetamet-pivoxil indicates a clinical role for this new oral cephalosporin in the treatment of respiratory tract infections.
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Of 144 eligible patients, urine culture was positive in 54 of 72 (75%) women in group A and 51 of 72 (71%) in group B. There were no significant differences between groups in resolution of acute symptoms. Clinical cure was observed in 49 of 54 (91%) patients in the group A and in 47 of 51 (92%) patients in the group B (p = 0.68). After three days of treatment urine culture was negative for all patients. No adverse effects were observed in either of the groups.
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Geographic distribution of sensitivity rates was not homogeneous for some antibiotics. Around 24% of strains were betalactamase producers, requiring higher MICs of antibiotics such as loracarbef, cefprozil and cefaclor than non betalactamase producers. Nevertheless MICs of ceftibuten, cefpodoxime and cefixime were similar in both betalactamase producers and non-producers. Five strains (1.25%) were beta -lactamase (2), but resistant to ampicillin (MIC > or = 8 mg/L) and to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (MIC > or = 4/2 mg/L). Only three strains showed intermediate sensitivity to chloramphenicol. These strains and four others were inhibited with > or = 4 mg/L of tetracycline. Only one strain was resistant to tetracycline (MIC: 64 mg/L) and to rifampin (MIC: 256 mg/L). All strains were sensitive to azithromycin (MICs < or = 4 mg/L) and all were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and trovafloxacin (MICs < or = 0.5 mg/L). However, ten strains (2.5%) were resistant to nalidixic acid (MIC > or = 4 mg/L).
None of the N. gonorrhoeae isolates was susceptible to penicillin G and most were resistant to tetracycline (50%) and ciprofloxacin (97%). The rates of resistance to ceftriaxone, azithromycin, cefpodoxime and cefixime were 3%, 5%, 8% and 9%, respectively. However, all isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. Twenty-one (84%) of the 25 ESC-resistant isolates contained the non-mosaic PBP2 XIII allele; however, the remaining 4 (16%) possessed the mosaic PBP2 X allele, which has been previously associated with ESC resistance including treatment failures.
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Salmonella species are a rare cause of urinary tract infections in children. They have been associated with a higher incidence of structural abnormalities or immunosuppressive status. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with urinary tract infection (UTI) secondary to Salmonella typhi and associated with urolithiasis. A review of the subject is then discussed.
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The K(d) value of mosaic PBP 2 for fluorescent penicillin was higher than that of non-mosaic PBP 2s. The affinity of mosaic PBP 2 for cefdinir or cefixime was lower than that of the non-mosaic PBP 2s. The affinity of the mosaic PBP 2 for ceftriaxone was not changed, compared with that of the non-mosaic PBP 2s.
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This study concluded that in cases in which several antibiotics may be clinically effective, comparative tolerability and patient acceptance data should be considered for selection of appropriate therapy. High compliance and lower morbidity can result in lower costs and better quality of life.