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In total, 23 patients hospitalized for acute exacerbations of COPD and treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were included. Sputum and serum samples were collected at day 3 of treatment to determine beta-lactamase activity in sputum and amoxicillin concentrations in both sputum and serum.
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In this randomized, multicenter, observer-blind study, the efficacy, safety and tolerability of amoxycillin/clavulanate and cefaclor were compared in children with a clinical diagnosis of acute otitis media. Patients aged between 1 and 12 years received either amoxycillin/clavulanate (250 mg/62 mg t.i.d., or 125 mg/31 mg t.i.d. if aged under 6 years) or cefaclor (250 mg t.i.d., or 125 mg t.i.d. if aged under 6 years) for 7 days. The amoxycillin/clavulanate regimen was based on a dose of 20/5 mg/kg/day (representing 20 mg amoxycillin plus 5 mg clavulanic acid) in three divided doses. Patients were followed-up at the end of therapy and on days 10-12 and 38-40. At the end of the study (days 38-40), clinical success rates were 91.4% for amoxycillin/clavulanate and 78.6% for cefaclor. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.008). After the 7 days of treatment, 3 patients (2.9%) in the amoxycillin/clavulanate group had clinical failure, compared with 18 patients (16.1%) in the cefaclor group (p < 0.001). Both treatments were well tolerated and there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in adverse event profiles. The incidence of diarrhea was low (7.0% amoxycillin/clavulanate, 8.4% cefaclor) and was generally of mild or moderate intensity. The study demonstrated that amoxycillin/clavulanate was significantly more effective clinically than cefaclor in the treatment of acute otitis media in children.
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There were a total of 28 patients during the review period. Twenty-five organisms were isolated from 21 patients, of which Streptococcus viridans formed 44% of the isolates (11 of the 25). The typical triad of bacteria only formed 20% of the isolates (5 of the 25), and none of these bacteria were found in the group with intracranial complications. Infection site cultures had a superior yield compared to blood cultures (p < .001). Ninety-six percent of the bacteria were sensitive to a combination of amoxicillin-clavulanate and cloxacillin.
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There was very little good quality evidence. Four studies were included, all of them investigating different interventions and therefore a meta-analysis was not possible.Only one study demonstrated a significant difference. Oral amoxicillin clavulanate was compared to placebo in 79 patients. The odds of having a discharge persisting eight days after starting treatment was 0.19 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.49) . The number needed to treat to achieve that benefit is 2.5. Participants in both arms of this study also received daily aural toilet. The results will therefore not be applicable to most settings including primary care. No significant benefit was shown in the two studies investigating steroids (oral prednisolone with oral amoxicillin clavulanate and topical dexamethasone with topical ciprofloxacin ear drops), or the one study comparing an antibiotic-steroid combination (Otosporin®) drops versus spray (Otomize®) (although more patients preferred the spray form).
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Clinical prophylactic efficiency proved to be equal for the four types of antibiotic regimens.
For a 13-year period (1978 through 1990), oxacillin-resistant (MIC, greater than 4 micrograms/ml) Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) strains were collected from Clinical Center (National Institutes of Health) patients and patients from five other U.S. hospitals. From Clinical Center patients, 251 of 253 isolates (99%) were bacteriophage typed as phage group III. Five other hospitals contributed 203 ORSA strains, of which 188 (93%) were group III. The group III ORSA strains predominantly included a characteristic core pattern of phages, 7/47/53/54/75/77. For the low-level (borderline) oxacillin-resistant strains (MIC, 2 to 4 micrograms/ml), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination (Augmentin) testing disclosed 62 hyper-beta-lactamase producers, of which 59 (95%) were of a separate, distinct S. aureus strain, with the phage pattern 92/94/96/292/D-11 (group V). Thus, ORSA and hyper-beta-lactamase producing S. aureus are distinct epidemic strains.
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This study assessed the prevalence and microbial interactions of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium necrophorum in primary endodontic infections from a Brazilian population and their antimicrobial susceptibility to some antibiotics by the E-test. One hundred ten samples from infected teeth with periapical pathologies were analyzed by culture methods. Five hundred eighty individual strains were isolated; 81.4% were strict anaerobes. F. nucleatum was found in 38 root canals and was associated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., and Eubacterium spp. F. necrophorum was found in 20 root canals and was associated with Peptostreptococcus prevotii. The simultaneous presence of F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum was not related to endodontic symptoms (p > 0.05). They were 100% susceptible to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and cephaclor. Fusobacterium spp. is frequently isolated from primary-infected root canals of teeth with periapical pathologies. Amoxicillin is a useful antibiotic against F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum in endodontic infections and has been prescribed as the first choice in Brazil.
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Updating the guidelines in close collaboration with the specialists involved followed by active dissemination proved to be an efficient way to improve compliance with guideline recommendations. An 86% compliance level was achieved in this study without compulsory measures. A ceiling effect may have limited the added value of AD.
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Antimicrobial therapy remains a controversial issue in nonsevere exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Posttreatment urine culture was negative in all cats in the pradofloxacin group, but there were 3 treatment failures in each of the other groups. Owners' perceptions of the difficulty of administering oral medication to their cats was more positive posttreatment than pretreatment (P = .001; P < .001). There was no difference in palatability among the treatment groups (P > .05).
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Fourteen trials with 2,521 enrolled patients used 2,416 patients in the analysis. A total of 1,350 patients received azithromycin and 1,066 received amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. The pooled analysis of all trials showed that there was no significant difference in the incidence of clinical failure on about day 10 to 14 after therapy started between the two groups (relative risk (RR) (random effects) 0.96; 95% CI 0.58 to 1.57). Sensitivity analysis showed that a reduction of clinical failure in azithromycin-treated patients (RR 0.52; 95% CI 0.24 to 1.12) in three adequately concealed studies, compared to RR 1.14 (95% CI 0.62 to 2.08) in eleven studies with inadequate concealment. Eleven trials reported the incidence of microbial eradication and there was no significant difference between the two groups (RR 0.98; 95% CI 0.91 to 1.07). The reduction of adverse events in azithromycin group was RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.00).
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A Chlamydia infection was found responsible, by culture or serology, in one out of 2 cases; only one germ was found in 14 cases, 2 germs in 21 cases and none in 7 cases. The association A + T was effective in all moderate cases at 8 and 30 days; in severe forms, there was a failure at 8 days and 4 others at 30 days or 17%. Augmentin alone per os caused 5 failures out of 10 cases at 8 days. No new failure was observed after several months in cases cured at 30 days. The association A + T may be recommended as very effective in moderate forms of acute salpingitis.