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The results indicate that the efficacy and tolerability of cefdinir, once or twice daily, and cefuroxime were comparable with no significant differences between the regimens used.
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Both treatment regimens gave rise to similar alterations of the normal oropharyngeal microflora. In both groups, the amount of Streptococcus salivarius was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The most common causative pathogens of acute otitis were S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. On the day of enrollment, approximately half of the patients, in both groups, were infected with more than one pathogen. The rate of infection or colonization with more than one potential pathogen was low on day 7 but recurred 2 weeks after treatment to similar levels as on day 0. The total number of patients with reinfection, recolonization or recurrence of pathogens on day 21 was 11/12 in the amoxycillin-clavulanate group and 4/7 in the cefuroxime axetil group. The most common beta-lactamase producer was M. catarrhalis.
Amoxicillin remains the antibiotic of choice for initial empiric treatment of AOM, although the traditional dosage should be increased in patients at risk for drug-resistant S. pneumoniae. In cases refractory to high-dose amoxicillin, TMP/SMX should be prescribed if adherence to prior therapy seemed good or complete, or high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanate if adherence was incomplete or questionable. Ceftriaxone should be reserved as third-line treatment. The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant S. pneumoniae emphasizes the importance of alternative medical approaches for the prevention of OM, as well as judicious antibiotic use in established cases. Removal of modifiable risk factors should be first-line therapy for prevention of rAOM. We support the use of conjugate pneumococcal vaccine per guidelines for prevention of rAOM from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with consideration given to influenza vaccine for cases of rAOM that historically worsen during the flu season. Sulfisoxazole prophylaxis should be reserved for children who are immunocompromised, have concurrent disease states exacerbated by AOM, or meet the criteria of rAOM despite conjugate pneumococcal and influenza vaccination. Therapy should be intermittent, beginning at the first sign of an upper respiratory infection, and should continue for 10 days. The invasive nature and risks of anesthesia relegate myringotomy, tympanostomy tubes, and adenoidectomy to last-line therapies for rAOM.
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A total of 563 isolates (330 Escherichia coli, 142 Proteus mirabilis and 91 Klebsiella spp) was studied; MIC50/MIC90 of Cefditoren was 0.25/0.5 mg/L respectively, with 97.1% of the isolates being inhibited at 1 mg/L. All 12 strains producing ESBLs or AmpC enzymes were resistant to cefditoren. Susceptibility rates (%) for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime axetil, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fosfomycin were 93.1- 94.1- 96.8-93.1-71.9 and 92.8% respectively. Cefditoren MIC was significantly higher in nalidixic/ciprofloxacin non-susceptible strains; resistance to cefditoren was not associated with resistance to mecillinam, fosfomycin nitrofurantoin and aminoglycosides. Multivariate analysis demonstrated history of urinary infection in the last two weeks or three months as risk factors for cefditoren resistance.
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The efficacy of cefuroxime axetil compared with phenoxymethylpenicillin (PcV) was studied in group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GAS) culture-proven tonsillitis in children aged 3-12 years with a history of at least 1 episode of tonsillopharyngitis requiring antibiotic therapy during the previous 3 months. This was a comparative, randomized, investigator-blind, multicentre study. A total of 236 children received either cefuroxime axetil suspension or PcV syrup. Inclusion criteria were a positive, rapid, group A strep test verified by bacteriological culture and clinical signs and symptoms of tonsillopharyngitis. Cefuroxime axetil treatment gave a significantly higher bacteriological eradication rate and clinical cure rate than PcV. At day 2-5 post treatment the eradication rates were 99/114 (87%) for cefuroxime axetil vs 61/109 (56%) for PcV (p < 0.001). The clinical cure rates were 98/114 (86%) and 73/109 (67%) respectively (p < 0.01). Up to 21-28 days post-treatment, 9/114 (8%) cefuroxime axetil patients and 37/109 (34%) PcV patients were treatment failures or had recurrence/reinfection of GAS tonsillopharyngitis (p < 0.001). More than 90% of the patients who experienced bacteriological treatment failure at either the first or second follow-up had the same serotype isolated pre- and post-treatment. During the study period, 21/114 (18%) patients in the cefuroxime axetil group and 50/109 (46%) patients in the PcV group received additional antibiotics (p < 0.001). No serious adverse events were noted and the mild adverse events were equally distributed among the patients in the 2 study groups: 15% for cefuroxime axetil and 14% for PcV.
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The arrival of new cephalosporins faces the clinician with an evergrowing confusion as to the drug of choice. The older agents (cephalexin, cephradine, cefadroxil and cefaclor) and the newer formulations cefatrizine and cefuroxime axetil are intensively used for treatment of mild and moderate infections. The oldest agents have a better pharmacokinetic profile but are less active against Gram-positives and Gram-negatives. Cefaclor, cefatrizine and cefuroxime axetil have improved in vitro activity against H. influenzae and/or against S. aureus and M. catarrhalis. However the mean free serum concentrations after proposed standard daily doses of cefaclor (3 x 250 mg/d), cefatrizine (2 x 500 mg/d) and cefuroxime-axetil (2 x 250 mg/d) are lower than those of the older cephalosporins. In comparison amoxicillin-clavulanate is equally efficacious, has a more reliable pharmacokinetic profile and is less expensive than cefaclor and cefuroxime axetil in a comparable dose (e.g. 3 x 500 mg/d).
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A simple rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for estimation of cefuroxime axetil from bulk drug and tablet dosage form by using 1-nitroso-2-napthol and sodium hydroxide. The method is based on the formation of yellow-orange coloured complex of drug with 1-nitroso-2-napthol having absorbance maxima at 424 nm. The Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 10-50 mug/ml of the drug but more precisely it obeys in the range of 10- 30 mug/ml. The slope and intercept values are 0.0101 and 0.0838, respectively. Results of analysis of this method were validated statistically and by recovery studies. The method is applied to the marketed tablet formulation. Result of analysis of tablet formulation given as percentage of label claim +/-standard deviation is 99.17+/-1.57. The precision and accuracy was examined by performing recovery studies and was found to be 99.50+/-1.82. Sandell's correlation coefficient is calculated as 0.4434. The developed method is simple, sensitive and reproducible and can be used for routine analysis of cefuroxime axetil from bulk and tablet dosage form.
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Retrospective case series.
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This investigation describes the development of an intragastric drug-delivery system for cefuroxime axetil. The 3(2) full factorial design was employed to evaluate contribution of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M/HPMC K100 LV ratio (polymer blend) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on drug release from HPMC matrices. Tablets were prepared using direct compression technique. Formulations were evaluated for in vitro buoyancy and drug release study using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 24 paddletype dissolution apparatus using 0.1N HCl as a dissolution medium. Multiple regression analysis was performed for factorial design batches to evaluate the response. All formulations had floating lag times below 2 minutes and constantly floated on dissolution medium for more than 8 hours. It was found that polymer blend and SLS significantly affect the time required for 50% of drug release, percentage drug release at 12 hours, release rate constant, and diffusion exponent (P<.05). Also linear relationships were obtained between the amount of HPMC K100 LV and diffusion exponent as well as release rate constant. Kinetic treatment to dissolution profiles revealed drug release ranges from anomalous transport to case 1 transport, which was mainly dependent on both the independent variables.