Acute diarrhea associated with international travel is commonly caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, or noroviruses. Early studies to define these enteropathogens took place at the University of Maryland during the Theodore E. Woodward years. Although a reduction in the rate of diarrhea may be possible through avoidance of foods and beverages likely to be contaminated, a more effective preventive strategy is to administer nonabsorbed (<0.4%) rifaximin each day during trips to areas where the risk of traveler's diarrhea is high (i.e., high-risk areas). For the self-treatment of diarrhea that occurs during travel, all persons planning trips to high-risk areas should take with them medication with expected activity against the prevalent bacterial enteropathogens: rifaximin (for the treatment of common afebrile, nondysenteric diarrhea), a fluoroquinolone, or azithromycin. Further study is needed to determine whether it is possible to avoid important morbidity associated with diarrhea and the development of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome with chemoprophylaxis and/or early effective treatment.
Five males, one female, aged 62 - 69 (66.0 +/- 2.4) years. Amiodarone was used because of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in five patients and ventricular arrhythmia in one. The loading dose was 7 g and the maintaining dose was 0.2 g/d or less. Pulmonary toxicity was recognized at the times in 0.5 - 4.0 (2.1 +/- 1.3) years after amiodarone therapy. Dyspnea occurred, crack rales were audible in both lower parts of the lungs, and the chest X-ray showed grid-like changes in case one. No symptom was found in the others. Their diagnosis was made according to the pulmonary intestinal changes by high-resolution computerized tomography when the lung marking was increased or deranged by chest X-ray during the regular follow-up. Pulmonary function examination showed that the restrictive ventilation and the CO diffusing capacity decreased in case one, while the CO diffusing capacity was normal in the others. The decreased obstructive ventilation capacity was found in case six. Amiodarone was discontinued in all the cases after the diagnosis of induced pulmonary toxicity. One patient was treated with corticosteroid, three with azithromycin, and the another two patients were not treated with drug. During 0.1 - 5.0 year period of follow-up the symptoms were markedly attenuated in case one, and no new symptoms and radiography findings were found in the others.
Mycobacterium celatum is a rare cause of human infection, causing disseminated disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Infections localized to the lungs and the lymph nodes have also been reported in immunocompetent individuals. The existing literature on the subject is limited as are experiences with treatment regimens and durations. In the case presented herein, two different treatment regimens were applied to an immunocompromised HIV-negative patient with primary skin involvement and extensive pulmonary involvement due to suspected relapse on isoniazid, ethambutol, and clarithromycin treatment. The treatment regimen was changed to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and pyrazinamide and the treatment duration was prolonged to a total of 24 months, with good effect.
All clinical parameters showed better improvement in both periodontitis and peri-implantitis in the test group. Periodontal bacteria were more effectively reduced in the test group, but gradually increased around implants 6 months after treatment and natural teeth 9 months after treatment.
Fifteen multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from patients in intensive care units and 14 nonoutbreak strains were tested to determine in vitro activities of nontraditional antimicrobials, including cefepime, meropenem, netilmicin, azithromycin, doxycycline, rifampin, sulbactam, and trovafloxacin. The latter five drugs were further tested against four of the strains for bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity by performing kill-curve studies at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 times their MICs. In addition, novel combinations of drugs with sulbactam were examined for synergistic interactions by using a checkerboard configuration. MICs at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited for antimicrobials showing activity against the multiresistant A. baumannii strains were as follows (in parentheses): doxycycline (1 microg/ml), azithromycin (4 microg/ml), netilmicin (1 microg/ml), rifampin (8 microg/ml), polymyxin (0.8 U/ml), meropenem (4 microg/ml), trovafloxacin (4 microg/ml), and sulbactam (8 microg/ml). In the kill-curve studies, azithromycin and rifampin were rapidly bactericidal while sulbactam was more slowly bactericidal. Trovafloxacin and doxycycline were bacteriostatic. None of the antimicrobials tested were bactericidal against all strains tested. The synergy studies demonstrated that the combinations of sulbactam with azithromycin, rifampin, doxycycline, or trovafloxacin were generally additive or indifferent.
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Travelers' diarrhea affects 20-60% of travelers to low-income regions of the world. Much of the evidence for the clinical description and management of travelers' diarrhea was generated years ago, however, there is new information on geographic and host risk, etiology, and prevention strategies.
The authors conducted a randomized, controlled animal trial using a previously described intussusception model. Mice were gavaged with normal saline, amoxicillin-clavulanate or azithromycin twice daily for 5 days to assess the influence of enteral antibiotic exposure on intussusception, mesenteric adenopathy and bowel dilation. One pediatric surgeon performed all laparotomies and was blinded to group designation. Chi2 and Fisher exact tests were used to evaluate differences between antibiotic exposed and control groups.
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Staphylococcus biofilm exhibits high antibiotic resistance and therapeutic doses of antibiotics are often sub-inhibitory. Whereas data are available on the effect of sub-inhibitory antibiotics on matrix formation, little is known on their influence on biofilm population. Here, using BioTimer Assay (BTA), a method developed to quantify biofilm population, the influence of sub-inhibitory gentamicin, ofloxacin and azithromycin on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 biofilm population in flow with respect to static condition was assessed. Antibiotics and flow condition increased biofilm population even if at different extent, depending on the antibiotic molecule. The greatest bacterial population was found in biofilm developed under flow condition in the presence of azithromycin. A significant increase in biofilm matrix was recorded for biofilm developed in the presence of antibiotics in flow with respect to static condition. The growth rates (GRs) of 24-h biofilm developed under the influence of antibiotics and flow condition were also evaluated using BTA and a specific mathematical model. Antibiotics and flow condition affected the GRs of 24-h biofilm even if at different extent. The lowest GR value was recorded for biofilm developed under flow condition in the presence of ofloxacin. Although further studies are needed, our data indicate that antibiotics and flow condition influenced biofilm development by increasing both bacterial population and matrix formation and affected the GRs of the developed biofilm. To the best of our knowledge, BTA is unique in allowing the calculation of the GRs of biofilm and it may be considered to be a useful study model to evaluate the activity of antibiofilm molecules.
The clinical significance of the association between elevated anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) antibody titres and coronary heart disease (CHD) is unclear. We explored the relationship between antibodies against Cp and future cardiovascular events in male survivors of myocardial infarction (MI). The effect of azithromycin antibiotic therapy was assessed in a subgroup of post-MI patients.
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We performed a search of published reports by using MEDLINE (January 1, 1966, to April 30, 2015) and EMBASE (January 1, 1980, to April 30, 2015) with no restrictions. Studies that reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of interest were included.
Compared with the OVA group, azithromycin significantly reduced the inflammation score, peribronchial smooth muscle layer thickness, epithelial thickening and goblet cell metaplasia (P<0.05), and effectively suppressed AI of airway epithelium (P<0.05). Moreover, the increasing mRNA and protein expressions of Caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in lung tissue were all significantly decreased in azithromycin-treated rats (P<0.05). In vitro, azithromycin significantly suppressed TGF-β1-induced BEAS-2B cells apoptosis (P<0.05) and reversed TGF-β1 elevated Caspase-3 mRNA level and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (P<0.05).